Psychology Exam 1 Notes: - Psychology Exam 1 Notes Past theories of the mind Humors of the body Hydraulic Theories Spiritual theories for the mind The

Psychology Exam 1 Notes: - Psychology Exam 1 Notes Past...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.

Psychology Exam 1 Notes: Past theories of the mind: Humors of the body Hydraulic Theories Spiritual theories for the mind The neuron doctrine by Ramon Y Cajal - Located throughout the body - Communicate with each other through microscopic gaps between cells - Golgi staining technique introduced by Camillo Golgi Neuron - specialized cells that receive/transmit info throughout body and brain We have about 80-100 billion neurons Mostly concentrated in the brain Neuron communication: Synapse - a very small space that separates the terminal buttons of one neuron from the dendrites of another Neurotransmitters - chemicals that are released by pores in the terminal buttons of neurons They can: - Excite - increase the chances of/cause the second neuron to release its neurotransmitters - Inhibit - reduce the likelihood that the second neuron releases its neurotransmitters Events that occur in the synapse: - Activation - (excitation/inhibition) neurotransmitters temporarily cling to the dendrites of another neuron, and influence the neuron based on the type of neurotransmitter released - Reuptake - the axon terminal eventually “sucks back” the neurotransmitters that were released (recycling at its best) - Diffusion/metabolized - the neurotransmitter can be broken down, washed away, or used up by other cells and enzymes that are located in the synapse Supporting Staff: - glial cells - remove waste, sync activity, insulate neurons (mylenation) Famous case studies: Phineas cage Wernicke‘s and Broca’s aphasia patients EEG (1920’s): Takes advantage of electrical changes due to action potential ERPs Amazing temporal resolution
Electrical stimulation studies: Electroconvulsive shock treatment Less invasive, larger samples. Detect when the brain is active and where Modern advances: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) - Uses magnetic pulses to temporarily deaden areas of the brain 1 minute of stimulation = 1 minute of deadened area Positron Emission Tomography (PET scans) - Uses radioactive isotopes to determine where blood is pooling - Can only measure activity that lasts for minutes (poor temporal resolution) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRIs) - Uses spinning magnets to determine the - density of the brain (imaging) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRIs) - Uses MRI techniques to determine where blood has just left oxygen - Good temporal resolution (seconds) and spatial resolution (<1 mm) - $$$, temporal resolution not as good as electrical activity measures DRUGS Agonist - Increases activity at a synapse Antagonist -Decreases activity at a synapse Reuptake inhibitor

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture