Western Civ notes 1 - Western Civ Lecture 1/16 1/18 1/23...

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Western Civ. Lecture 1/16, 1/18, 1/23, 1/25 A. Overview 1550 to 1660 a. Renaissance (1450 to 1550) i. Humanists : promote the idea that what happens on earth is important (people previously thought that all that mattered was what would take place in the heavens, humanists did not agree with this theory) ii. Renaissance artists portrayed humans as they are in the here and now as opposed to medieval artists who distorted the human figure and focused on the afterlife in their art. iii. This time period is a product of new wealth that has risen from trades with the Middle East. b. Reformation i. Europe is largely Catholic/Christian ii. The people, who have the money, have the power and therefore are basically running the churches. iii. Priest Martin Luther: Head of the protestant reform. He did not intend on dividing the church but just wanted to reform it from within itself. iv. Luther began his protest in 1552. He believed that people had their own direct connection to God and didn’t need the priests to intersect. Also he felt people should be able to worship in their native language (i.e. bibles and mass in multiple tongues.) c. Feudal Government i. Power during this time is widely decentralized. ii. The monarchy gives out some its power to nobles who in turn will help the monarch with military services. The nobles then give some of their power to the knights who will help the nobles in return thus also helping the monarch…
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Western Civ. Lecture 1/16, 1/18, 1/23, 1/25 iii. Castle Settlements: Nobles live in castles that are hard to destroy but the Gun Powder Revolution of 1500 enables the use of cannons, etc... Making it easier to break down walls. iv. Bureaucracies form from the breakdown of the feudal governments. B. Political Instability: 1550 to 1660, Nobles v. Monarchs a. France i. 1525 – 1650: Struggle b/t the monarchs seeking to expand their power and the nobles trying to resist. ii. Nobel Uprising: Nobles during this time were generally Calvinists. (Huguenots = French protestants) iii. St. Bartholomew’s Massacre in Paris. 3000 Protestants killed by Catholics in 2 days and upwards of ten thousand in the next weeks. iv. Fronde (1648 – 1653): Occurred under the rule of King Louis XIV. This was a revolt against the king. This event stuck with Louis for the rest of his life making him adamant that the king’s power will be absolute. 1. (Louis was being ruled for by his mother and Cardinal Mazarin because he was only 5) 2. See French absolutism for more info. b. England i. Conflict between the Anglicans (followers of the Church of England) and the Puritans. ii. This conflict follows into the governments. Parliament tends to be more Puritan where as the Monarchy is generally Anglican. iii. The conflicts breaks out into a civil war in the 1640’s which takes place until Charles I is beheaded in 1649 by Oliver Cromwell.
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