1A.+Endocrine+system+presentation

1A.+Endocrine+system+presentation - The Endocrine System...

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The Endocrine System Objectives - Define hormone and endocrine system - List major organs, hormones and their actions - Describe the anatomical relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland - Explain the paracrine secretions
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What is the function of the endocrine system? What organs make the endocrine system? Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system and hormones
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Major endocrine glands Pineal Thymus Thyroid Parathyroid Adrenal Pituitary Do you know any other types of glands? How are they different?
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Organs with Endocrine Function Pancreas Gonads--ovaries and testes Hypothalamus neuro-endocrine organ Organs with areas of endocrine tissue skin, intestine, heart….
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Hormones Chemical substances secreted into ECF Travel where the blood goes Regulate activity of target cells that have receptors on plasma membrane, mitochondria, nucleus Have specificity - a receptor for one hormone will not bind other hormones Exhibit saturation - condition in which all - receptor molecules are occupied by - hormone molecules (when all receptors - are already accupied)
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Types of hormones by chemical structure Steroids - derived from cholesterol Sex hormones and corticosteroids Hydrophobic (lipid) Peptides -chains of aminoacids Oxytocin and ADH, hormones of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary Hydrophilic Monoamines Epinephrine, NorEpi, dopamine, melatonin - hydrophilic Thyroid hormone - hydrophobic
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Hormone transport Endocrine cell Free hormone Carrier-bound Hormone Albumin, globulins Hormone receptor Biological effects Can leave a blood capillary and get to target cell Aldosterone (85%) can attached to any hormone Steroids and thyroid hormone Increase half-life time Required to clear 50% Of hormone from blood Like being married Like not being married
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Modulation of target cell sensibility Up-regulation The cell increases the number of receptors and becomes more sensitive to the hormone Oxytocin receptors Down-regulation The cell decreases the number of receptors and becomes less sensitive to the hormone Insulin receptors
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Down-regulation The insulin receptors are removed from the surface of the cell/stored in intracellular endosome when cell's food stores (glycogen& triglyceride) are saturated. a cell or tissue is not used (muscle immobilization) Aging- (degreasing number of receptors)
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Can you think of other chemical substances used for communication in the human body? The neurotransmitters!!!!!
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Communication through NT and electrical impulses Releases NT at synapses Relatively short, specific effects Quick effect, 1-10 msec Stops quickly Adapts quickly to continuous stimulation Communication through hormones Releases hormones into blood for general distribution General, widespread effect sometimes Effect takes sec-days May continue after stimulus stops Adapts relatively slowly Nervous system Endocrine system
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