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2.+Blood_presentation - Blood What is the study of blood...

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Blood What is the study of blood?
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What is blood? Accounts for 8% of body weight Female 4-5 of blood Male 5-6 L of blood DISTRIBUTION Supplies O2 from lungs to cells Supplies nutrients from GI tract to cells Transports metabolic wastes from cells Transports hormones to target tissues/organs REGULATION Regulates body temperature Regulates the pH of body fluids Regulates blood volume to support efficient circulation PROTECTION Prevents blood loss Prevents infection through the activity of white blood cells, complement & antibodies
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Plasma Liquid part of blood Contains Water Hormones/Enzymes Nutrients Electrolytes Respiratory Gases Wastes Albumin - 60% Globulins - 36% Clotting Proteins - 4% - Proteins Produced where?
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Serum Albumin - 60% Globulins - 36% Clotting Proteins -4% Plasma Serum X Clot
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Hematocrit Percent of formed elements Hematocrit Normal Hematocrit - 45% depending on gender
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Formed Elements - Cells/Components Erythrocytes (RBCs) M 4.6-6.2 mil/mm3 F 4.2-5.4 mil/mm3 Leucocytes (WBCs) 5,000-10,000/mm3 Platelets 130,000-400,000/mm3 Why ?
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Properties of blood Viscosity - resistance to flow Determined by? Osmolarity - total molarity of dissolved particles Determined by? What if it is too high? What if it is too low? Colloid osmotic pressure
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Erythrocytes (RBCs) Disc-shaped cell with thick rim Lack nucleus/little organelles Small size and biconcave shape Lack mitochondria and generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms Major function gas transport 33% of cytoplasm is hemoglobin (Hb) Major contributors to blood viscosity
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Hypotonic Low solutes High water Isotonic 0.9% saline 5% glucose Hypertonic High solutes Low water Swollen Crenated
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Hemoglobin A Structure Heme group – bound to each protein chain Inds O2 to ferrous ion Fe+2 to form Oxyhemoglobin Deoxyhemoglobin - reduced hemoglobin O2 detaches from Hb Carbaminohemoglobin CO2 (20%) bound to globin Globin 25% HbA2 HbAIC HbF in fetus
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Hematopoiesis / Hemopoiesis To make blood Erythropoiesis/Leucopoiesis/Thrombopoiesis In adults occurs in the red bone marrow from a stem cell - hemocytoblast considered a pluripotential cell b/c it is a source of all formed elements and differentiates into progenitor cells Can occur in liver or spleen in diseases in which bone marrow is destroyed Red vs. Yellow marrow?
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Erythropoiesis (3-5 days) Proerythroblast First committed cell - receptors for erythropoietin from kidneys, liver Erythroblast multiply & synthesize hemoglobin Normoblast Hb accumulation and ejection of nucleus Reticulocyte ( young red blood cell ) network of endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes enters bloodstream as 0.5 to 1.5% of circulating RBCs
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Erythrocyte Homeostasis Negative feedback control drop in RBC count causes hypoxemia to kidneys EPO production stimulation of bone marrow RBC count in 3-4 days Other stimuli for erythropoiesis Low levels of atmospheric O2 Increase in exercise Hemorrhaging
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