FINAL CHEAT SHEET FNH - Monosaccharides glucose fructose...

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Monosaccharides : glucose, fructose and galactose. SIMPLE SUGARS Disaccharides: Sucrose, lactose and maltose Sucrose: Table sugar, obtained from sugar cane or sugar beet, is mainly pure sucrose. Glucose+ fructose linked together. Fats= Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate , and protein . Triglycerides , are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas . They are esters. Composed of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol . Oil= a fat with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains. Liquid at room temperature Esterification: HOH (Water) is eliminated and the carbons are linked by an –o- bond through dehydration synethsis. Therefore, fats are esters. Fat= solid at room temperature.H ydrophobic , soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Two essential fatty acids (EFAs) in human nutrition: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid ) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid ) Chemical structure : 3 chians of fatty acids bonded to each of the 3 –OH groups of the glycerol by the reaction of the carboxyl end of the fatty acid (-COOH) with the alcohol. Saturated F =have no double bonds between the carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain. Solid at room temp= lard Unsaturated F =Have 1 or more double bonded C in the chain. Liquid at room temp=olive oil TransF =Type of unsaturated. Generated during hydrogenation as contaminants created by an unwanted side reaction on the catalyst during partial hydrogenation CisF =Most common in nature PolyunsaturatedF =Multiple double bonds Fatty acid : Form a family of compounds are composed of increasing numbers of carbon atoms linked into a zigzag chain Oil : A fat with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temp. Hydrogenation : reaction with hydrogen effected by a catalyst, tends to break all the double bonds and makes a fully saturated fat Fat Calories : energy sources for the body. 1gram of fat when burned= 9 calories. Are broken down to release glycerol & fatty acids. Glycerol can be converted into glucose by the liver and used as energy. Vegetable shortening=then, liquid cis -unsaturated fats such as vegetable oils are hydrogenated to produce saturated fats=they melt better(30–40 °C), and store good.polyunsaturated oils go rancid when they react with oxygen in the air. Each gram of fat when burned or metabolized releases about 9 food calories (37 kJ = 8.8 kcal ). 4 cal/g intake. Fats broken= glycerol and fatty acids . Glycerol itself can be converted to glucose by the liver and so become a source of energy. 2 Types of Emulsions : Water in oil-butter/margarine. Oil in water- mayonnaise, homogenized milk. Emulsifiers help food mix together and not disperse . Phospholipids : fat molecule, can function as emulsifier. Structurally similar to triglycerides, except that only two fatty acids are linked to the glycerol (making it a diglyceride), and a charged group (negatively charged phosphoric acid esterified with positively charged choline group) is linked to the third position of glycerol. Example: Lecithin =emulsifier found in egg yolk &

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