PLPTFinalExamStudyGuide - 1 Contemporary conservative and contemporary liberal views constitute different ways of interpreting the classical liberal

PLPTFinalExamStudyGuide - 1 Contemporary conservative and...

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1. Contemporary conservative and contemporary liberal views constitute different ways of interpreting the classical liberal tradition originating in the 17th century. Discuss. a. Definition: right to life, liberty, and property is the central tenant of government b. part of the Lockean legacy (Locke is Calvinist) i. After the death of Oliver Cromwell, Charles II ascends the throne ii. Concern about returning England to a Catholic monarchy with a hierarchical system that is reminiscent of the middle ages tree model iii. After a period of political unrest, William of Orange and his wife Mary lead the Glorious Revolution iv. Locke publishes his second treatise in the wake of the revolution v. He proposes this idea of a constitutional monarchy because of the past unrest and because “King Billy” is like no monarch that they’ve had before vi. He proposes that the government be built upon preserving the life, liberty, and property of its citizen--the limited nature of the government. c. Progression through Adam Smith (Scottish enlightened thinker in the 18th century) i. He’s writing just after the Enlightenment (progress!) and at the beginning of the industrial revolution ii. While Locke felt that citizens had a right to life, liberty, and property because it was God given, Adam Smith felt this way because it would allow for economic prosperity iii. Wealth of Nations -- concerned with expanding Europe’s wealth through the same classical liberalism with different motives - laissez-faire: let people interact naturally and this will lead to economic progress. Coupled with same limited government. --views the capitalist relationships are horizontal d. John Stuart Mill (19th century, England) i. economic relationship in capitalism is vertical (“new feudalism”) ii. Writing in the midst of the Industrial Revolution iii. Felt that individual liberty needed a new defense because of the squalor and new feudal system that had arisen iv. Because of the promises of freedom and prosperity for all and the state of the working class, Mill’s ideas leaned more toward socialism v. He defines threat of liberty as not only coming from the state but also from poverty vi. Because of the force of poverty and its threat to individual rights, the government has an obligation to alleviate it (the interpretation of classical liberalism) e. Contemporary conservative views are reminiscent of both Locke’s and Smith’s conceptualizations of classical liberalism are i. concept of small/limited government ii. laissez-faire economics iii. unalienable rights iv. Friedman 1. after the Great Depression, “liberals” became those who wanted more government interference and bigger government 2. contemporary conservatives are the true liberals v. Mill
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1. unless you’re harming others, the government should back off 2.
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