3- Biomolecules_ReviewSheet

3- Biomolecules_ReviewSheet - Biomolecules Exercise 3...

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Biomolecules Exercise 3 Review Sheet Biomolecules What is a biomolecule? A carbon based molecule that is essential to cell function and form the basic components of living tissues. Any molecule that naturally occurs in a living cell is a biomolecule. What are some atoms found in biomolecules? Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur. What are the three major classes of biomolecules? Saccharides [carbohydrates], lipids [fats], peptides [proteins] What are some other biomolecules that are not found in these three major classes? Vitamins, hormones, phosphates, nucleotides, nucleic acids. Why should you have positive and negative controls in all of your chemical experiments? They serve as a comparison. Saccharides What are the four key functions of saccharides? Supply carbon, structural components in cells and tissues, fuel, and store glucose. Saccharides are characterized by the presence of what two reactive chemical groups (usually only one of the two is present)? Aldehyde [terminal] and ketone [internal] EX: How do we classify monosaccharides by the length of their carbon chain? Monosaccharides occur in both chains and rings. Monosaccharides are classified by length of carbon chain, triose sugars have three carbons, pentose sugars have 5 carbons, and hextose sugars have 6 carbons. What is a reducing sugar? Any saccharide with a free aldehyde or ketone group [regardless if it is a monosaccharie or disaccharide] is a reducing sugar. What test did you perform in class that tests for the presence of a reducing sugar? Benedict’s reagent test What reactive group does this test interact with on a reducing sugar? Benedict’s reagent test reacts with oxygen on available reactive groups What does all of this have to do with copper sulfate? Benedict’s reagent test reacts with the double-bonded oxygen atom in either the aldehyde or ketone group to reduce the copper sulfate in the benedicts’ reagent. When heated, an orange-red copper oxide precipitate is formed. What did a positive test look like? A negative test? A positive test shows a color change to green, brown, or orange-red. A negative test shows no color change.
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What was your positive control? Negative control? What is a disaccharide? Consists of two monosaccharides linked by a glycosidic bond. What type of bonds link saccharides together? Glycosidic bonds What chemical reaction allows for these bonds to form? Dehydration synthesis. Why don’t some disaccharides react with the Benedicts reagent? If both reactive groups are bonded, then the disaccharide does not react with the benedict’s reagent. What is hydrolysis? How is hydrolysis related to dehydration synthesis? (pictures on p.29) During hydrosis of sucrose molecules, the glycosidic bonds break and the constituent fructose and glucose monosaccharide molecules are reconstituted. Dehydration takes out water to perform the reaction and hydrosis adds water.
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3- Biomolecules_ReviewSheet - Biomolecules Exercise 3...

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