Sedimentary Rocks - SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Sedimentary Rocks are...

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SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
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Sedimentary Rocks are rocks formed from the consolidation of loose sediment (clastic/detrital) by chemical precipitation (chemical) rocks consisting of the secretions or remains of organisms (biogenic)
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Clastic/Detrital Sedimentary Rocks form by weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks classified on the basis of grain size into mudstones/shales (clay <1/256 mm) Siltstones (silt 1/256 to 1/16 mm) Sandstones (sand 1/16 to 2 mm) breccias/conglomerates (gravel > 2mm)
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Namib Desert, Namibia, Africa
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Navajo Sandstone, Zion National Park, Utah Quartz Sandstone
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Chemical Sedimentary Rocks form by inorganic precipitation of minerals chemical sediments form evaporite minerals such as halite and gypsum Precipitation of minerals from groundwater such as calcite
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Halite Gypsum Anhydrite
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Extracting Salt from Solar Ponds, San Francisco Bay, California Evaporites, Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah Halite
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Playa Lake, Death Valley, California
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Biogenic Sedimentary Rocks Organic Precipitation of Minerals sediments precipitated biochemically by organisms form many limestones and cherts Conversion of Organic Matter to Rock forms coal deposits
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Coquina Chert Radiolaria Photomicrograph of Biogenic Chert
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Limestone, White Cliffs of Dover (Upper Cretaceous), England Foraminiferan in Eye of Needle Coccolith on Foraminiferan in Eye of Needle
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Coal Formation
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Erosion and Transport Sediment is eroded and transported primarily by water also by wind and glacial ice Rounding - removal of the corners of grains, often by tumble transport Sorting - separation of minerals in a sediment by grain size; usually more transport has better sorting Maturity – Texturally Mature sediment loses clay and becomes better sorted and more rounded with more transport Chemically/Mineralogically Mature sediment loses unstable mineral components and becomes more quartz-rich
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Modes of Transportation
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Rounding Breccia Conglomerate
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Sorting
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Textural Maturity Quartz Grains, St. Peter Formation near Pacific, Missouri
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