Biology review

Biology review - Biology review Chapter 22 1. Natural...

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Biology review Chapter 22 1. Natural selection- population can change over generations if that posseses certain heritable traites leave more ofspring that other individuals. 2. Evolution- change over time in the genetic composition of a population. 3. Evolutionary adaption- an accumulation of inherited characterisitcs that enhance or ganisms ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments. 4. Scala naturae- scale of nature; aristol’s vision that lifeforms could be arranged on a ladder or scale with increasing complexity. 5. Natural theology- old testament account f creation, God created all things perfectly. 6. Taxonomy- the branch of biologyconcerned wth naming and classifying organisms. 7. Catastrophism- each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe, such as a flood or a drought that destroyed many of the species living at that time. 8. Uniformitarianism- same geologic processes are operating today as in the past, and at the same rate. 9. Binomial nomenclature- scientific naming, genus species. 10. Linnaeus- sweadish physitian and botanist who sought to classify lifes diversity. Founder of taxonomy; grouping similar species into increasing general categories 11. Darwin- publisher of “on the orgin of species by means of natural selection” his book drew a picture of life by connecting the dots amng what has nce seemed a bewildering array of inrelated observations. The provided evidence that many species of organisms presently inhabiting earth are descendents of ancestrial speces that were different from the modern species. He proposed natural selection, the main evolutionary process. 12. Wallace- british natural who developed a theory of natural selection similar to darwins, a asked darwin to evaluate his work. 13. Cuvier- french scientist who largely developed palentology, nothed that deeper stata depicted more dissimilar the fossils are from current ife; new species appear and others disapper; founder of the idea of catastophysim. 14. Palentology- study of fossils 15. Gradualism- the idea that profound change can take peace through the cumulative effect of slow but continuous processes
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16. Artificial selection- humans have modified other species ver time/many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits. 17. Homologous structures- represent variations on a structural theme that was present in their common ancestor. Examples- arms, forelimbs, flippers, wings. 18. Homology- similarity resulting from common ancestry. 19. Analogy- no shared ancestry but similar. 20. Biogeography- geographic distribution of species, closely related species then to be found in the same geographic region. 21. Vestigial structures- homologous structures that are rarely important to current individual, but may have been useful to an ansestor. Remnants of structures that served important functions in organisms ancestors. 22. Charles lyell- founder of uniformitarianism. Strom influence on darwins thinking. Principles of
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This note was uploaded on 06/28/2008 for the course BIOL 112 taught by Professor Vaughn during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Biology review - Biology review Chapter 22 1. Natural...

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