4.+Blood_vessels_presentation

4.+Blood_vessels_presentation - Major types of blood...

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Major types of blood vessels A closed system of conduits that carry the blood from the heart to the tissues and back to the heart Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart Arterioles: smallest branches Capillaries Veins carry oxygen-poor blood toward the heart Venules: smallest veins heart arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins
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Circulatory Routes and Anastomoses Portal system blood flows through two consecutive capillary networks in hypothalamus and intestines – liver Arteriovenous shunt artery flows directly into vein Venous anastomoses alternate drainage of organs Arterial anastomoses collateral circulation joints, abdominal organs, heart
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Vessel Wall Tunica externa adventitia loose connective tissue protects, reinforces, anchors the vessel vasa vasorum Tunica media usually thickest: smooth circular muscle critical in regulating circulatory dynamics Tunica interna (intima) smooth layer that repels platelets & decreases friction simple squamous endothelium overlying a basement membrane and a layer of fibrous tissue LUMEN
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Arteries Conducting/elastic arteries - largest pulmonary, aorta and common carotid arteries tunica media: perforated sheets of elastic tissue, thin layers of smooth muscle, collagen and elastic fibers expand in systole, recoil in diastole; lessen fluctuations in BP Distributing/muscular arteries femoral and splenic arteries distributes blood to specific organs smooth muscle layers - 3/4 of wall
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Arterioles are the smallest of arteries resistance/small arteries control amount of blood to organs large arterioles have 3 tunics Metarterioles short vessels connect arterioles to capillaries have one layer of smooth muscle cells muscle cells form a precapillary sphincter at the entrance to capillary
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Small Vessels Thin tunica interna Exchange of materials (gases, nutrients, hormones) between the blood and interstitial fluid Smallest
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Microcirculation Capillary beds are interweaving
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4.+Blood_vessels_presentation - Major types of blood...

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