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Ch.+25.+The_Digestive_system_presentation

Ch.+25.+The_Digestive_system_presentation - Digestive...

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Digestive system General anatomy and digestive processes GI organs Chemical digestion and absorption
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Match Ingestion Propulsion Mechanical digestion Chemical digestion Absorption Defecation uptake nutrients into blood/lymph elimination of solid waste (feces) intake of food enzymatic breakdown of molecules movement physical breakdown of food chewing and churning
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The Digestive System Functions
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Subdivisions of the Digestive System Alimentary Canal (GI tract) - Organs through which food actually passes Accessory Organs - assist in digestion, but no food passes through them.
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Tissue Layers of the GI Tract Mucosa Epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae Submucosa Muscularis externa Serosa
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Tissue Layers of the GI Tract
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Mesentery and the Peritoneum Aorta Mesenteric artery Visceral peritoneum Parietal peritoneum Body wall Arterioles and venules Vein Hepatic portal vein
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Peritoneum and Mesentery Mesentery has a suspension role
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Relationship to the Peritoneum Retroperitoneal duodenum, pancreas & parts of large intestine Intraperitoneal small and large intestine
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Regulation of Digestive Tract Neural control Short reflexes dependent on the enteric nervous system (peristalsis of swallowing) Long reflexes (parasympathetic stimulation of digestive motility and secretion) Hormones - gastrin, secretin Paracrine secretions - histamine, PG
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The Mouth or Oral Cavity Mechanical digestion - mastication/Chewing Deglutition/swallowing Chemical digestion surface area exposed to enzymes Salivary amylase 32 Teeth Tongue Salivary glands
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Musculature of the Tongue Intrinsic muscles = vertical, transverse & longitudinal Extrinsic muscles connect tongue to hyoid, styloid process, palate and inside of chin Tongue shifts food onto teeth & pushes it into pharynx Intrinsic tongue muscles Extrinsic tongue muscles
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Muscles of Mastication 4 Major muscles Arise from skull & insert on mandible Temporalis & Masseter elevate the mandible Medial & Lateral Pterygoids help elevate, but produce lateral Swinging of jaw used to grind with molars Temporalis Masseter Lateral pterygoid Medial pterygoid
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Suprahyoid Muscles and Swallowing Digastric and Mylohyoid = open mouth Geniohyoid = widens pharynx during swallowing Stylohyoid = elevates hyoid Thyrohyoid (an infrahyoid m.) = elevates larynx, closing glottis Digastric Mylohyoid Stylohyoid Thyrohyoid
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Other Muscles involved in Swallowing Pharyngeal constrictors push food down throat Infrahyoid muscles pulls the larynx downward Intrinsic laryngeal muscles used to control speech Pharyngeal constrictors
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