Respiratory_System_handout

Respiratory_System_handout - The Respiratory System...

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The Respiratory System Respiration Pulmonary ventilation External respiration Transport of gases Internal respiration
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Organs of Respiratory System Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
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Respiratory Tract Upper respiratory tract: nose, nasal cavity, pharynx Lower respiratory tract: larynx trachea, bronchi, lungs
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Nose and nasal cavity External nose- bones and cartilages Internal nasal cavity Nasal septum Nostrils and choanae Functions Airway for respiration Moistens/warms/cleans air Resonating speech chamber Detects odors Sneeze reflex
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Paranasal Sinuses Warm/humidify air Lighten the skull Resonate the voice Ethmoid Maxillary Sphenoid Frontal
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Nasopharynx air passage posterior to choanae, dorsal to soft palate receives auditory tubes and contains pharyngeal tonsil air turns 90 ° downward trapping large particles >10 μ m Oropharynx – air/food passage Space between palate and root of tongue with stratified squamous epithelium Palatine and lingual tonsils Laryngopharynx hyoid bone to cricoid cartilage
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Larynx Air passageway glottis - superior opening Prevents food from entering respiratory tract epiglottis - guards the glottis Sphincter functions Valsalva maneuver Voice production Vocal folds
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Walls of the Larynx Vestibular folds superior pair, close glottis during swallowing, extrinsic muscles elevate larynx in swallowing Vocal cords produce sound, intrinsic muscles
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Action of Vocal Cords
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Views of Larynx largest 1 1 1
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Trachea Flexible, mobile tube in mediastinum Adventitia areolar connective tissue, reinforced by 16-20 “C” hyaline rings - prevent collapse Trachealis muscle adjusts airflow by expanding/contracting
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Tracheal Epithelium Submucosa areolar connective tissue with seromucous glands Mucosa cilliated pseudostratified goblet cells functions as mucociliary escalator
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Bronchial Tree Primary bronchi arise from trachea enter hilum of lungs right bronchus slightly wider / vertical C-shaped rings Secondary/lobar bronchi 2 L and 3R one secondary bronchus per lobe overlapping plates of cartilage 10 R, 8 L bronchopulmonary segment overlapping plates of cartilage Tertiary/segmental bronchi 23 generations
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Bronchopulmonary Segment portion of lung supplied by each tertiary bronchus
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lack cartilage, have layer of smooth muscle pulmonary lobule: portion ventilated by one bronchiole Terminal bronchioles divide into respiratory bronchioles
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Respiratory_System_handout - The Respiratory System...

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