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Unformatted text preview: Soc 102 10/01/2008 17:05:00 Objective vs. Subjective, from outside in or inside out Theory = order set of propositions developed to simplify the world in order to account for a particular aspect of it. Weber more subjectivistic than Durkheim Metatheory = theory regarding what is theoretically appropriate. Epistemology (Subjectivism -> Objectivism) Methodology Level of Analysis (Microscopic -> Macroscopic approaches) A. Parsons and the Problem of Order I. Talcott Parsons (1902 1979) objectivistic and macro, but only over the course of his career. Started as under Weber Two main works: 1. The Structure of Social Action Weber & Durkheim layout a theory of action that would give justice to the role of choices in patterns of behavior, voluntarism. Human will, conceives actions as voluntary. 2. The Social System Three concerns : 1. Problem of motivation what motivates people to do what they do. 2. Coordination how are actions coordinated leads to the problem of order. 3. Systematicity actions are coordinated in systems of behavior. Processes that are peculiar to social systems. -Functionalist II. Hobbes and the Problem of Order -The problem of order why is there order and not rather chaos? Why is there something rather than nothing. Why and how do human beings regularly maintain a social life, a life of order. -Hobbes English philosopher political philosophy Seeks legitimate government Leviathan A war of all against all 3 characteristics of natural state of mankind, what would life be like in the absence of an established authority (state of nature). o 1. Absence of state of nature no sense of justice, no concept of private property, 2 primary means of how ends are solved = force & fraud o 2. Equality of Ability Equality of hope in attaining our ends, men using one another to pursue self-interested ends. o 3. Scarcity of means with respect of wants individuals come together, give up their freedom to a sovereign authority to gain security *Parsons thought Hobbes thoughts something to do with Social Theory (Order), Hobbess answer was unsatisfactory. He believes we needed a system of common norms and values, system of ultimate ends that we share in common. III. Solutions sovereign authority A. Coercive Hobbes solution was Coercive. Authority has the power to force people to comply. Its doing it legitimately because its doing it on behave of the people to comply....
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