chp 32 Notes - Chapter 32 Notes Colonial Africa Economic...

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Chapter 32 Notes Colonial Africa: Economic and Social Changes Outside of Algeria, Kenya, and South Africa, few Europeans lived in Africa. The very small European presence dominated the African economy and developed Africa as an exporter of raw materials in such a way that brought benefit to Europeans but to very few Africans. Africans were forced to work in European-owned mines and plantations under harsh conditions for little or no pay. Colonialism provided little modern health care, and many colonial policies worsened public health, undermined the African family, and gave rise to large cities in which Africans experienced racial discrimination Religious and Political Changes During the colonial period many Africans turned toward Christianity or Islam. Missionaries introduced Christianity (except in Ethiopia, it was indigenous). Islam spread through the influence and example of African traders. The contrast between the liberal ideas imparted by Western education and the realities of racial discrimination under colonial rule contributed to the rise of nationalism. Early nationalist leaders and movements such as Blaise Diagne in Senegal, the African National Congress in South Africa, and Pan-Africanists like W.E.B. Dubois and Marcus Garvey from America had little influence until after World War II, when Africans who had served in the Allied war effort came back with new, radical ideas. The Land and the People Despite famines due to drought, India’s fertile land allowed the Indian population to increase from 250 million in 1900 to 389 million in 1941. Population growth brought environmental pressure, deforestation, and a declining amount of farmland per family. Indian society was divided into many classes: peasants, wealthy property owners, and urban craftsmen, traders, and workers. The people of India spoke many different languages; English became the common form of communication of the Western-educated middle class. The majority of Indians practiced Hinduism. Muslims constituted one-quarter of the people of India and formed a majority in the northwest and in eastern Bengal. British Rule and Indian Nationalism Colonial India was ruled by a viceroy and administered by the Indian Civil Service.
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The few thousand members of the Civil Service manipulated the introduction of technology into India in order to protect the Indian people from the dangers of industrialization
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  • Fall '16
  • Davis
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