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Appadurai o Double apartheid (p. 2-3) 1 t he growing divorce between these debates and those that characterize vernacular discourses about the global, worldwide, that are typically concerned with how to plausibly protect cultural autonomy and economic survival in some local, national, or regional sphere in the era of "reform" and "openness." 2. the poor and their advocates find themselves as far from the anxieties of their own national discourses about globalization as they do from the intricacies of the debates in global fora and policy discourses surrounding trade, labor, environment, disease, and warfare. o Grassroots globalization (p.3) Globalization from below He says that it is significant because it “strives for a democratic and autonomous standing in respect to the various forms by which global power further seeks to extend its dominion” Without its success, an international civil society will have no future o World of flows (p. 5) We live in a state of motion where there is a constant flow of everything from ideas and ideologies, people and goods, images and messages, technologies and techniques around the world. o “trait” geographies/ “process” geographies (p. 6-7) He says that we need to move away from “trait” geographies which categorize based on “traits” (language, values, marriage patterns, ecological adaptations, material practices) because they tend to see areas as immobile aggregates of traits. Instead he calls for a shift toward “process” geographies which see significant areas of human population based on action, interaction, and motion ( trade, travel, pilgrimage, warfare, proselytization, colonization, exile, etc.) because these better define populations and are able to show shifts and changes better. Pan Am o Lippold – Pan Am Lobby Sculpture (1963) The sculpture looks like modern aircraft with a sphere of the world in the center. From this sphere a seven pointed star radiates out towards the seven continents and seven seas as if in intercontinental travel. The fragmented arcs suspended in arms of the star, like parts of the world transported by means of swift air travel. You can walk under the looming structure, filling the viewer the same sort of awe as when one embarks and disembarks from a plane. Niru Ratnam “Art and Globalization” o Brazilian artist Cildo Miereles Insertions into Ideological Circuits: Coca-Cola Project [early 1970s] Wrote “Yankees Go Home” under the Coca-Cola logo and then put the bottles back in to circulation in Brazil, which was under strict censorship at the time. This operates by subverting the system out of which it is constituted, rather than seeking some sort of outside to the circuits of global capitol.
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