16 Equilibrium Applications

16 Equilibrium Applications - QRT 14.42: Butane (B) and...

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1 QRT 14.42: Butane (B) and 2-methypropane (MP) can convert from one isomer to the other. At 25 o C, K C = 2.5 for this reaction. If 0.10 mole of each isomer were put in a 1.0 L container at 25 o C, what would the MP concentration be at equilibrium? Report [MP] = A) 0.10 M B) 2.5 M C) 0.043 M D) 0.14 M K C = [MP] / [B] = 2.5 2 To solve these kinds of problems, construct a table of amounts below the reaction equation. Initial conc 0.10 M 0.10 M conc chge -x +x eq conc 0.10-x 0.10+x Q = 1, K > 1 so reaction will produce more product K = (0.10+x) / (0.10-x) = 2.5 x = 0.0429 [MP] = 0.10 + 0.0429 = 0.14 M
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3 Le Chatelier’s Principle (not covered in lecture) MSJ text, pp. 695 – 703. Foundations of Chemistry #31, pp. 215 – 220. Ch. 14 QRT Homework 55, 57, 59, 67, 71, 73 4 What determines the magnitude of an equilibrium constant, K We found that K was determined by a ratio of rate constants involving forward and reverse reactions. We also found that K is related to two energy factors for a reaction: the enthalpy change and the entropy change . - RT ln(K) = G o = H o – T S o We connected these two ideas by using the Arrhenius equation, where E a is the activation energy (i.e. free energy of activation: E a = G o a . k = A e -Ea/RT
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5 The enthalpy effect says that the reaction favors the species (reactants or products) that have the lower energy. The entropy effect says that the reaction favors the species
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16 Equilibrium Applications - QRT 14.42: Butane (B) and...

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