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21 Structure and Strength

# 21 Structure and Strength - If HX is a stronger acid than...

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1 If HX is a stronger acid than HY, which one of the following statements is correct? A) X - is a stronger base than Y - . B) X - is a weaker base than Y - . C) The strengths of acids and their conjugate bases are not related. K a x K b = 1.0 x 10 -14 2 If HX is a stronger acid than HY, which one of the following statements is correct? A) X - is a stronger base than Y - . B) X - is a weaker base than Y - . C) The strengths of acids and their conjugate bases are not related. K a x K b = 1.0 x 10 -14 If HX is the stronger acid, it means that X - can’t hold onto the proton as strongly as Y - , so X - is the weaker base. In terms of the equation, K a for HX is larger than K a for HY, so K b for X - must be smaller than K b for Y - .

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3 Battle of the Bases 1) HF + H 2 O H 3 O + + F - K a (1) =7x10 -4 pK a (1)= 3.15 2) HCN + H 2 O H 3 O + + CN - K a (2) =4x10 -10 pK a (2)= 9.40 3) HF + CN - HCN + F - Mix 1 mole each of HF, HCN, NaCN, and NaF in 10 L water. At equilibrium A) [HF] > [HCN] B) [HF] = [HCN] C) [HF] < [HCN] (3) = (1) – (2) So K(3) = K a (1) / K a (2) = 2 x 10 6 4 Molecular Structure and Acid Strength QRT Homework Ch. 16: 20, 72, 76, 82, 88, 98, 100, 131 More than usual, but these are qualitative, not lengthy numerical problems. They all require that you apply important things that you should know.
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