Quiz Study Guide


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1. Taking into account world geography and history since the end of the last ice age (c. 11,000 BC), what's the primary reason for the unequal distribution of wealth and power today (and for the past 500 years)? To take control of scarce natural resources. People are secondary to the "gold." 2. Define "power" in its natural and human forms. How do "power" and "authority" differ? Power is the ability to pursue and obtain gold by mastering an environment, especially its people. The channels of power are economic, political, military and ideological. 3. What are the four channels of power in human societies? Do you think any one channel is more important than the others? The channels of power are economic, political, military and ideological. Military is the most important, especially in Greek culture. It is the great persuader. 4. What are the key characteristics distinguishing "egalitarian," "rank" and "stratified" societies from one another? Egalitarian societies are small groups of hunter/gatherers, maybe 10-20 people. Positions of authority are temporary and solely based on ability. Rank societies are larger groups of about 100 people, some of which hunt and gather, while others tend to agriculture. Positions of authority are given to the "bigman," based on ability. Stratified societies are hierarchical, and much larger in size, maybe a few thousand. They will collect and redistribute wealth/food. A leader or "chief" will preside over a capitol and remain in power indefinitely. 5. How were positions of authority created and sustained in each type of society? Egalitarian: temporary positions of authority based on ability; Rank: "bigman" authority based on ability; Stratified: "chief," passed down family lines through generations, lifelong terms. 6. How did the early state differ from these earlier types of society? States are a large-scale version of the stratified societies; large agricultural societies with huge redistribution apparatus’. Also, lots of aggression - will fight other states for power and resources. 7. Where and about when did early states first emerge? 3500 BC, Mesopotamia 8. What was the major difference between the Near Eastern and Egyptian "power models"? (A "power model" consists of: a palace-state or city-state and its redistributive economy; long-distance trade; its core - periphery relations with hinterland regions; the mobility and adaptability of its "civilized," state institutions, technology and values). The Near Eastern power model involved many individual "city-states" while the Egyptian power model was a unified kingdom under one ruler, the Pharaoh. 9. When and where did early palace states first emerge in the Aegean region? 2000 BC, Crete
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