nuch_chem_rev_s2007

nuch_chem_rev_s2007 - Nuclear Chemistry Review Roy A Lacey...

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1 Nuclear Chemistry Review Nuclear Chemistry Review Roy A. Lacey Roy A. Lacey SUNY Stony Brook SUNY Stony Brook 2 The structure of matter The structure of matter
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3 Atomic Structure Atomic Structure Nucleons: p + : proton n 0 : neutron. Mass number: the number of p + + n 0 . Atomic number: the number of p + . Isotopes: have the same number of p + and different numbers of n 0 . 4 Radioactivity Radioactivity Radioactivity: Radioactivity: There are four common types of radiation: α Radiation is the loss of 4 2 He from the nucleus, β Radiation is the loss of an electron from the nucleus, γ Radiation is the loss of high-energy photon from the nucleus. n Radiation is the loss of neutron from the nucleus
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5 Radioactivity Radioactivity Radioactivity: Radioactivity: There are four common types of radiation: α Radiation is the loss of 4 2 He from the nucleus, β Radiation is the loss of an electron from the nucleus, γ Radiation is the loss of high-energy photon from the nucleus. n Radiation is the loss of neutron from the nucleus 44 22 aa bb X Y α ⎯⎯ →+ 0 11 X Y β −+ ⎯⎯ 0 0 X Y γ ⎯⎯ 0 X nY ⎯⎯ 0 X Y +− ⎯⎯ 6 Radioactivity Radioactivity
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7 examples examples 239 117 117 94 47 47 __ Pu Ag Ag ⎯⎯ →++ ? 1 0 5 n 8 Quiz Quiz 214 214 __ B iP o ⎯⎯ →+ Complete the following equation 83 84 ? 249 161 2_ _ Es neutron neutron Gd +⎯ + 99 64 ? 1 0 2 n ×
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9 Patterns of Nuclear Stability Patterns of Nuclear Stability The heavier the nucleus, the more neutrons are required for stability. The belt of stability deviates from a 1:1 neutron to proton ratio for high atomic mass. At Bi (83 protons) the belt of At Bi (83 protons) the belt of stability ends and all nuclei stability ends and all nuclei are unstable. are unstable. Nuclei above the belt of stability undergo β -emission. An electron is lost and the number of neutrons decreases, the number of protons increases. 10 Quiz Quiz
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11 Quiz Nuclides that have neutron-to-proton ratios that are too HIGH (compared with stable nuclides) are expected to undergo: a) alpha decay.
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This note was uploaded on 06/29/2008 for the course CHE 132 taught by Professor Hanson during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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nuch_chem_rev_s2007 - Nuclear Chemistry Review Roy A Lacey...

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