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Unformatted text preview: 3 ______________________________________________________________________________ MOLECULES OF LIFE Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: SCIENCE OR THE SUPERNATURAL? MOLECULES OF LIFE—FROM STRUCTURE TO FUNCTION Carbon's Bonding Behavior Functional Groups How Do Cells Actually Build Organic Compounds? BUBBLE, BUBBLE, TOIL AND TROUBLE THE TRULY ABUNDANT CARBOHYDRATES The Simple Sugars Short-Chain Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates GREASY, OILY—MUST BE LIPIDS Fats and Fatty Acids Phospholipids Waxes Cholesterol and Other Sterols PROTEINS—DIVERSITY IN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION WHY IS PROTEIN STRUCTURE SO IMPORTANT? Just One Wrong Amino Acid… …And You Get Sickle-Shaped Cells! Denaturation NUCLEOTIDES AND NUCLEIC ACIDS SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ CRITICAL THINKING Objectives 1. Understand how small organic molecules can be assembled into large macromolecules by con- den sation. Understand how large macromolecules can be broken into subunits by hydrolysis. 2. Memorize the functional groups presented and know the properties they confer when attached to other molecules. 3. Know the general structure of a monosaccharide, a fatty acid, an amino acid, and a nucleotide. 4. Know the macromolecules into which these essential building blocks can be assembled by con- densation. 5. Know where these carbon compounds tend to be located in cells or organelles and the activities in which they participate. 16 Chapter Three Key Terms organic compounds functional groups alcohols, —OH group monomers polymers enzymes condensation reaction hydrolysis methane seeps methane hydrate carbohydrate sugar monosaccharides ribose deoxyribose glucose oligosaccharide disaccharide sucrose lactose polysaccharide cellulose starch glycogen chitin lipids fats fatty acid unsaturated saturated triglyceride phospholipid waxes cutin sterols cholesterol proteins amino acid R group peptide bond amino group carboxyl group polypeptide chain primary structure secondary structure tertiary structure quaternary structure globular proteins hemoglobin glycoproteins lipoproteins fibrous proteins heme glutamate valine sickle-cell anemia denaturation nucleotide ATP coenzymes nucleic acids DNA RNA Lecture Outline Impacts, Issues: Science or the Supernatural?...
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