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Unformatted text preview: 5 ______________________________________________________________________________ HOW CELLS WORK Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: ALCOHOL, ENZYMES, AND YOUR LIVER INPUTS AND OUTPUTS OF ENERGY The One-Way Flow of Energy Up and Down the Energy Hills ATPThe Cells Energy Currency INPUTS AND OUTPUTS OF SUBSTANCES The Nature of Metabolic Reactions Redox Reactions Types of Metabolic Pathways HOW ENZYMES MAKE SUBSTANCES REACT ENZYMES DONT WORK IN A VACUUM Help From Cofactors Controls Over Enzymes Effects of Temperature, pH, and Salinity DIFFUSION, MEMBRANES, AND METABOLISM What Is a Concentration Gradient? What Determines Diffusion Rates? Membrane Crossing Mechanisms HOW THE MEMBRANE TRANSPORTERS WORK Passive Transport Active Transport WHICH WAY WILL WATER MOVE? Movement of Water Effects of Tonicity Effects of Fluid Pressure MEMBRANE TRAFFIC TO AND FROM THE CELL SURFACE Endocytosis and Exocytosis Membrane Cycling SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ CRITICAL THINKING Objectives 1. Know two laws that govern the way energy is transferred from one substance to another. 2. Know the forces that cause water and solutes to move across membranes passively. 3. Distinguish between substances that move by simple diffusion and by facilitated diffusion. 4. Know the mechanisms by which substances are moved across membranes against a concentra - tion gradient. 34 Chapter Five 5. Provide an example of a metabolic pathway and explain what kinds of substances regulate activity of the pathway. 6. Tell exactly what enzymes do and how they do it. 7. Explain how a molecule can carry energy. 35 Chapter Five Key Terms energy first law of thermodynamics entropy second law of thermodynamics endergonic aerobic respiration exergonic ATP phosphorylation ATP/ADP cycle reactants intermediates end products energy carriers enzymes cofactors transport proteins chemical equilibrium oxidation-reduction reaction redox reactions electron transfer chains metabolic pathways biosynthetic (anabolic) degradative (catabolic) activation energy substrates active sites rearrangements condensation transition state induced-fit model coenzymes antioxidants free radicals NAD + , NADP + allosteric site feedback inhibition selective permeability concentration gradient diffusion electric gradient pressure gradient passive transport facilitated diffusion active transport exocytosis endocytosis calcium pump sodium-potassium...
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