IM_chapter11 - 11 _ CHROMOSOMES AND HUMAN GENETICS Chapter...

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11 ______________________________________________________________________________ CHROMOSOMES AND  HUMAN  GENETICS Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: STRANGE GENES,  TORTURED MINDS THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF  INHERITANCE A Rest Stop on Our Conceptual Road Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes Sex Determination in Humans KARYOTYPING MADE EASY IMPACT OF CROSSING OVER ON  INHERITANCE HUMAN  GENETIC ANALYSIS  EXAMPLES OF HUMAN  INHERITANCE  PATTERNS Autosomal Dominant Inheritance Autosomal Recessive Inheritance X-Linked Inheritance TOO YOUNG, TOO OLD ALTERED CHROMOSOMES The Main Categories of Structural  Change Duplication Inversion Deletion Translocation Does Chromosome Structure Evolve? CHANGES IN THE CHROMOSOME  NUMBER Autosomal Change and Down  Syndrome Changes in the Sex Chromosome  Number Female Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Male Sex Chromosome Abnormalities SOME PROSPECTS IN HUMAN  GENETICS Bioethical Questions Some of the Options Genetic Screening Phenotypic Treatments Prenatal Diagnosis Genetic Counseling Regarding Abortion Preimplantation Diagnosis SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ GENETICS PROBLEMS Chromosomes  and  Human  Genetics 75
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Objectives 1. Describe  how  an  understanding  of chromosomes  helps  to  account  for  events  that  compose   mitosis and  meiosis. 2. Name  some  ordinary  and  extraordinary  chromosomal  events  that  can create  new  phenotypes   (outward  appearances). 3. Understand  how  changes in chromosome  structure  and  number  can affect the outward  appear - ance of organisms. 4. Distinguish   autosomal recessive inheritance  from  sex-linked recessive inheritance. 5. Give examples of each of the above types of inheritance. 6. Explain  how  changes  in  chromosomal  number  can  occur  and  present  an  example  of such  a  change. 7. List examples of phenotypic defects, and  describe how  each can be treated. 8. Explain  how  knowing  about  modern  methods  of genetic  screening  can  minimize  potentially  tragic events. Key Terms gene pairs of homologous   chromosomes alleles wild-type mutant crossing over genetic recombination X chromosome Y chromosome sex chromosomes autosomes SRY   gene testosterone nonsexual traits spectral karyotyping linkage groups pedigree genetic abnormality genetic disorder syndrome disease genetic disease autosomal dominant   inheritance achondroplasia Huntington  disease expansion  mutation autosomal recessive  inheritance galactosemia X-linked  inheritance color blindness hemophilia A Hutchinson-Gilford  progeria syndrome duplication inversion deletion cri-du-chat translocation aneuploidy polyploidy nondisjunction trisomy  21 Down  syndrome Turner syndrome XXX syndrome Klinefelter syndrome XYY condition abortion genetic screening phenylketonuria, PKU prenatal diagnosis embryo fetus
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IM_chapter11 - 11 _ CHROMOSOMES AND HUMAN GENETICS Chapter...

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