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2007midterm1KEY

2007midterm1KEY - Neurobiology Midterm I Spring 2007 ZO 488...

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Neurobiology CODE NUMBER __________________________ Midterm I, Spring 2007 ZO 488 / ZO 588 Neurobiology Midterm Exam I ZO 488 / ZO 588 **************************************************************************** TRUE / FALSE (17 points total) 1. FALSE Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Camillo Golgi shared the Nobel Prize for providing evidence in favor of the neuron doctrine. **Golgi argued AGAINST the neuron doctrine.** 2. TRUE Clinical cases helped early neuroscientists understand that specific brain functions are localized to specific brain regions. 3. FALSE Neurons differ in their morphology and function, but not in gene expression. **Neurons differ on ALL THREE of these features** 4. FALSE The ion with the largest concentration gradient will have the largest equilibrium potential, but only if the ion is positively charged. **This is true whether the ion is positively OR negatively charged. Larger concentration gradient means larger (farther from zero) equilibrium potential.** 5. FALSE Voltage clamp is a technique for measuring the changes in membrane potential that occur during an action potential or a postsynaptic potential. **Voltage clamp is a technique for measure CURRENT flow.** 6. FALSE The equilibrium potential for a given ion is the membrane potential at which the ionic concentration inside the cell is equal to the concentration outside the cell. **The concentrations inside and out do not become equal because an electrical force is generated that counters the chemical force – this is why it is an ELECTROchemical equilibrium rather than a CHEMICAL equilibrium.** 7. FALSE At rest, the open ion channels in the membrane of a neuron are primarily voltage-gated potassium channels. **At rest, primarily LEAK potassium channels are open.** 8. FALSE Excitation of a neuron always results in an increase in action potentials. **Excitation means the target neuron is more likely to reach threshold, but it does not always do so.** 9. FALSE Synaptotagmin is thought to cause the opening of calcium channels when action potentials arrive at the terminal. **Synaptotagmin is thought to be the CALCIUM SENSOR, resulting in vesicular fusion in response to the voltage-dependent calcium influx.** 10. TRUE A given neurotransmitter can be either inhibitory or excitatory, depending on the receptors expressed by the postsynaptic cell. **Yes, the exact type of receptor expressed will determine the effect of the neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell.**
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11. FALSE The rate-limiting step in the synthesis of dopamine is the availability of the precursor tyrosine. **The rate-liminting step in the synthesis of DA is the synthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH).** 12. TRUE Neuropeptides that act as neurotransmitters typically are synthesized in the cell body and sent to the terminal by anterograde transport along microtubules. 13. TRUE Inhibitory synapses tend to be located on dendrites close to the cell body, where they can most effectively shunt current.
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