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Lecture 9 - Eukaryotic Gene Regulation 1 Examples of...

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Eukaryotic Gene Regulation 1. Examples of eukaryotic gene regulation 2. Combinatorial and coordinated control 3. Gene regulation and development
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Reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning using genetic information from adult tissues
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Question : Almost all cells of an organism are originated from a single cell (zygote -fusion of a sperm and a egg cell), and every cell has the same genome. Why then individual cells will eventually take developmental fate and become different cells, such as blood cells, skin cells, muscle cells, etc? Short answer : Different cells express different sets of genes, so they have different set of proteins. New question : Why different genes express in different ways? What determine when should a gene express? Why regulate gene expression?
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Red Blood Cell Retinal Rod Cell Hemoglobin Carries Oxygen Rhodopsin Absorbs Light Specialized Cells Specialized Cells Make Specialized Proteins Make Specialized Proteins
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Cis and trans-acting factors involved in the regulation eukaryotic gene transcription
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Modifications of histone tails determine chromatin structure and transcription activity Histones in euchromatin are highly acetylated (hyperacetylation), whereas histones of heterochromatin are rarely acetylated (hypoacetylation)
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