Lecture 10 - Midterm Review Lecture

Lecture 10 - Midterm Review Lecture - Four most important...

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Unformatted text preview: Four most important polymers of the cell lipid triacylglyerol, which is a glycerol linked to three fatty acid molecules, phospolipids contains 2 fatty acid plus a phosphate linked to another molecule, phospolipids make up the cell membranes. Polysaccharide polymers of sugars Polysaccharides are structure and energy materials of the cell . DNA/RNA polymers of deoxyribonucleotides/ribonucleotides DNA/RNA are genetic materials of the cell. Often measured by length: bp (base pairs) for DNA, and nt (nucleotides) for RNA. Proteins polymers of amino acids, often measured by kilodalton (kD). Proteins are the workforce of the cell. Polymer-- Many copies of small molecules (monomer) linked covalently to form polymers, MWs are often in kD (10 3 Dalton). Chemical bonds interaction between two atoms Noncovalent bonds-- Interactions between atoms not involved with electron sharing-- weak bonds, but many working together can stabilize 3D structure of a large molecule ( intra-molecular bonding). -- help molecules bind to other molecules ( inter-molecule interactions).-- particularly important for biomolecules Covalent bonds-- Two atoms interact by sharing electrons-- Strong, hold atoms in a molecule together ( intra-molecular bonding)-- Bond strength is ~110 kcal / mol, it is the energy needed to break a bond, -- Single bond: two atoms sharing 1 pairs of electrons, free rotate-- Double bonds: two atoms sharing 2 pairs of electrons, can not rotate Four types of noncovalent bonds (2) Hydrogen bonds- H bond is the electrical attraction between a hydrogen atom of one molecule and negatively charged atom in another molecule. It forms when a hydrogen atom is sandwiched between two electron-attracting atoms such as O and N. e.g. O-H . O, N-H O, - H bond is particularly important for the high-order structures of polymers such as the secondary structure of protein and RNA and the double strand structure of DNA.- H 2 O molecules (in water) stick to each other and others by H bonds. (1) Ionic bonds- attractive force between positively and negatively charged atoms- in ionic bonds, atoms gain or lose electrons completely to its partner-strongest noncovalent bond Hydrogen bonds (3) Hydrophobic interactions-force that causes nonpolar portions of molecules to stay away from water molecules-In contrast to other bonds that form because the two parties love each other, the hydrophobic interaction is formed because all parties hate water and they all get pushed together. the enemy of my enemy is my friend (4) Van der Waal Forces-Weak attractive forces through transient dipoles in the electron clouds of all atoms.-Attraction decreases rapidly with increasing distance....
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Lecture 10 - Midterm Review Lecture - Four most important...

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