Lecture 6

Lecture 6 - BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION FLOWS FROM DNA TO RNA TO...

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BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION FLOWS FROM DNA Polymer of Deoxy-Nucleotides DNA TO RNA TO PROTEIN RNA Polymer of Ribonucleotides PROTEIN Polymer of Amino Acids Nucleotide sequence of gene determines protein sequence. Protein sequence determines folded structure and hence function. Transcription Translation
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Nucleoside pentose + base Pyrimidine type (one-ring) : C (cytidine), T (thymidine in DNA), U (uridine, in RNA) Purine type (two-ring) : A (adenosine), G (guanosine), Nucleotide: nucleoside + phosphate Building blocks of RNA and DNA
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Bases Pentose (in RNA) (in DNA) RNA DNA
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Formation of the phosphodiester bond by a condensation reaction, in which one H 2 O is removed C A H H H 2 O enzyme
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RNA is a single strand polynucleotide composed of 4 ribonucleotides: A, C, G, U.
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RNA and DNA RNA DNA ssDNA is stable in alkaline solution, but RNA is not. Why? The 2’-OH group makes RNA unstable in alkali, because it can attack the phosphodiester bonds of the RNA chain and break RNA into small pieces or nucleotide monomers RNA DNA
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Comparison between RNA and DNA DNA RNA Sugar Deoxyribose ( 2’ -H )R i b o s e ( 2’ –OH ) base A, C, G, T A, C, G, U structure double strand single strand Size large(kb-Mb) Small (bp-kb) t y p e mRN A, tRN A, r RN A, snRNA Stability in alkaline Stable (dsDNA denatured at high pH but it is not hydrolyzed Unstable (Hydrolyzed to nuclaotides
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A single strand RNA molecule can form short stretches of double strands when there are enough intra-molecule complementary base-pairing. G can base-pair with C to form 3 H bonds U can base-pair with A to form 2 H bonds
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1. Secondary structure The secondary structures are stem-loops and hairpins, which are formed through intra-molecule complementary base-pairing (A::U, C:::G).
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This note was uploaded on 07/02/2008 for the course LS 3 taught by Professor Lin during the Spring '06 term at UCLA.

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Lecture 6 - BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION FLOWS FROM DNA TO RNA TO...

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