1. Types of Metabolic Reac±ons, 3.1 page 57 a. The sum total of all chemical reac±ons that occur in cells is called what? i. metabolism b. What is energy metabolism? i. Reac±ons involved in energy use and storage. c. What does it mean when a reac±on is bidirec±onal? i. When reactants are turned into products, products are also turned into reactants. d. If a reac±on is going forward or in reverse, the focus is on the direc±on of what? i. The one that is greater. e. When determining if a reac±on is catabolic or anabolic, the focus is on what? i. If the product molecules are bigger or smaller than the reactant molecule. ii. Catabolic- large into small. iii. Anabolic- small into large. f. Metabolic pathway? i. When the product is reused as a reactant. g. In a metabolic pathway, what is the ini±al substrate, intermediates, and end-products? i. Ini±al substrate- star±ng reactant ii. Intermediates- in the middle of the ini±al and end products 2. Hydrolysis and Condensa±on Reac±ons a. Describe hydrolysis. i. Molecules are broken down with water and the two separate parts bond with water. Water breaks down into a hydroxyl group and hydrogen and can bond with two spate moelcules. b. What is the reverse of hydrolysis? i. Condensa±on-2 small molecules are joined to make a large molecule and water is the product.(amino acids to form pro±ens) 3. Phosphoryla±on and Dephosphoryla±on Reac±ons a. What is phosphoryla±on and dephosphoryla±on? i. Phosphoryla±on- add a phosphate group. (Add P to adp to synthesize atp) ii. Dephosphoryla±on- phosphate is removed.(remove P from ATP to form ADP) 4. Oxida±on-Reduc±on Reac±ons a. What is the formula for the oxida±on of glucose to water and carbon dioxide as seen in cellular metabolism? i. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O b. What happens in oxida±on and in reduc±on? i. Oxida±on- reac±on that removes electron from an atom or molecule. ii. Reduc±on- removed electrons are accepted by another atom or molecule. 5. Energy and the Laws of Thermodynamics pg. 39 a. What is kine±c energy and poten±al energy? i. Kine±c- mo±on (thermal, radiant, electromagne±c, electrical) ii. Poten±al- stored energy (gravita±onal, nuclear, chemical, mechanical. b. What is the Frst law of thermodynamics? i. Energy cannot be created or destroyed. c. What is the second law of thermodynamics? i. natural processes tend to proceed in the direc±on that spreads out the energy. d. What is the process of di²usion in terms of the second law?
i. Spread of molecules from high concentraTon to low.
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