1.Factors Affecting the Direction of Transport, 4.1 page 94oWhat determines if passive(with) transport or active(against) transport will be necessaryto move molecules across the plasma membrane?2.Passive Transport Versus Active TransportoHow does the transport of molecules across a membrane follow the same principles as chemical reactions?oWhat is the difference between passive and active transport?oWhat is simple diffusion?3.Driving Forces Acting on MoleculesoWhat is a driving force?oIn which direction is this force?oHow can these forces arise?oWhat are the 3 types of driving forces that usually influence the movement of molecules?4.Chemical Driving Forces (pg. 95)oWhen does a concentration gradient exist across a membrane?oWhat kind of driving force is a concentration gradient?oThe magnitude of the chemical driving force increases as what increases? (remember, the symbol Δ, delta, means "change")5.Electrical Driving Forces (pg.97)oWhy do electrical driving forces arise?6.Electrochemical Driving Forces oTHE DIRECTION depends on the ions. If they are opposite it goes with the larger force.oWhat are electrolytes?ooWhat is the difference between cations and anions?oDescribe a solution that is electrically neutral.oDoes intracellular fluid carry a charge? If so, what kind and why?oDoes extracellular fluid carry a charge? What kind?
oWhat is a separation of charge?oWhy do the excess negative and positive charges of intracellular and extracellular fluid tend to cluster close to the membrane?oWhat unit is used to indicate a cell's membrane potential?oWhat is the typical cell's membrane potential?oWhy is it negative?oWhy is an electrical potential a form of potential energy?oWhat causes current in biological systems?oTo determine the direction of the electrical driving force, you need to know what?oCations are attracted to what and anions to what?oWhat determines the magnitude of the electrical driving force on an ion?oWhat is the electrochemical driving force?7.Rate of Transport, 4.2 page 100oWhy is the rate of a metabolic reaction important?