Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Notes Matter and Energy 3.1 o 3.2 o...

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Chapter 3 Notes : Matter and Energy 3.1 o In your room Virtually everything is made of matter 3.2 o What is matter? Matter: anything that occupies space and has a mass Atom: tiny particles that ultimately compose all matter Molecule: two or more atoms that join to one another in a special arrangement 3. .3 o Classifying matter according to its state: solid, liquid, and gas Solids: In solid matter, atoms or molecules pack close to each other in fixed locations. Crystalline: the type of solid in which the atoms or molecules arrange themselves into a geometric pattern with long-range, reporting order Amorphous: the type of solid in which the atoms or molecules do not have a long range order Liquids: In liquid matter, atoms or molecules are close to each other (about as close as in solids) but are free to move around and by each other. Gases: In gaseous matter, atoms or molecules are separated by large distances and are free to move relative to one another. Since the atoms or molecules that compose gases are not in contact with one another, gasses are compressible o Compressible: the ability to be to be squeezed together under pressure. Its volume can change without changing the mass 3.4
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o Classifying Matter according to its composition: elements, compounds, and mixtures Pure substance: composed of only one type of atom or molecule Mixeture: composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules combined in variable proportions Pure substances: Element: a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances such as helium or carbon Compound: a substance composed of two or more elements in fixed definite proportions such as water Mixtures: Mixtures can be classified according to how uniformly the substances within them mix. Heterogeneous mixture: composition varies from one region to another Homogeneous mixture: composition in mixture is same throughout. 3.5 o How we tell different kinds of matter apart: physical and chemical properties Properties: the characteristics we use to distinguish one substance from another Physical properties: properties that a substance displays without changing its composition Chemical properties: properties a substance displays only through changing its composition The atoms or molecules that compose a substance do not change when the substance displays its physical properties. On the other hand, the susceptibility of iron to rush is a chemical property—iron must change into iron oxide to display this property 3.6 o How matter changes: physical and chemical changes Physical change: matter changes its appearance but not its composition. Ice melts to water, but the molecule unchanged.
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Chemical change: matter changes molecular composition. Copper turns greed
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