articles - "John Kennedy's Foreign Policy Hartley...

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"John Kennedy's Foreign Policy" - Hartley - Carryovers from the Eisenhower Administration: SU has atom bomb, more smaller states pop up in Africa and Asia - No discontinuity between the Kennedy and Johnson administrations (same ends, same advisors) - "New Frontier": Name of policy package that sought "new frontier" in other places of the world now that frontier in US was discovered - "Flexible Response": dialogue with soviets to reduce dangers of direct nuclear confrontations AND resist Soviet influence around the world by ways of various means (not just nuclear response) - Nation Building and Wars of National Liberation: Kennedy administration put high emphasis on counter insurgency training in their efforts to liberate the world from Soviet or communist influence. There was a period of instability where US would support one government after another until it was "liberated" (But this paid little attention of local politics and history and put a strain on US as it acted as world policeman) - Overall can be characterized as overconfidence in US power, underestimate of difficulty of doing something. "When in doubt, do something," which added more international commitments -3 Fatal Errors of Nation Building [SERESERES SAID TO KNOW THESE] 1. Does not take into account the huge strain placed on the US as this "world policeman". Also, we could become embroiled in a sticky situation that we would focus on, to the detriment of our foreign policy as a whole. 2. Didn’t take into account the diversity of political conditions 3. Overconfidence in US power scaring the Soviets, guesswork didn't take into consideration the complexity of Soviets and their own fear of China The Source of Soviet Conduct (Kennan) - Communist doctrine required overthrow of government to set in place the socialist agenda, but after the overthrow it was unclear how that agenda was to be implemented. - Leaders have since needed to secure their own power by squashing opposition to realize what they genuinely think is good for society - but have been doing it since 1917 - Communist Party Convinced Russians that dictatorship was needed to rid Russia of all capitalism; once gone, justified it until all global capitalism is gone - Innate antagonism exists to everything that is still capitalist; therefore, all dealings with the Soviet Union should be taken with caution because its a tactical maneuver - SU prized possession of socialism; all support to SU; capitalism will fall in time which means that revolutions cannot be premature because it might embarrass the SU
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- "United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies. It is important to note, however, that such a policy has nothing to do with outward histrionics: with threats or blustering or superfluous gestures of outward "toughness."" because they can play off a loss of temper - Russia thinks it can wait it out, but the people are tired from countless wars, civil conflicts, and
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articles - "John Kennedy's Foreign Policy Hartley...

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