HistoryPlantculture - Table A 1.1 A Historical Account of...

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Table A 1.1. A Historical Account of Milestones in the Field of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture (Adapted from: White, 1963; Pierik, 1987; Brar and Khush, 1994; Endress, 1994). Year Important Discoveries and Their References 1838 & 1839 Cell theory, suggesting totipotentiality of cells. Schleiden M. J., Arch. Anat., Physiol. U. wiss. Med. (J. Muller), 1838: 137-176; Schwann T., W. Engelman, No. 176 (1910). 1882 Plants synthesize organ-forming substances that are polarly distributed. Sachs J., Arch. Bot. Inst. Wurzburg, 2: 453 & 689. A 1902 First but unsuccessful attempt of tissue culture using monocots. Haberlandt G., Sitzungsber Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., 111: 69-92. 1904 First attempt in embryo culture of selected Crucifers. Hannig B., Bot. Zeitung, 62: 45-80. 1909 Fusion of plant protoplasts though the products failed to survive. Kuster E., Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges., 27: 589-598. 1921 Cultivation of fragments of plant embryos. Molliard M., C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 84: 770-772. 1922 Asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Knudson L., Bot. Gaz., 73: 1-25. In vitro culture of root tips. Robbins W. J., Bot. Gaz., 73: 376-390.
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1924 Callus formation on carrot root explants by use of lactic acid. Blumenthal F. and Meyer P. Z. Krebsforsch. 21: 250- 252. 1925 Embryo culture for interspecific crosses in Linum spp . Laibach F., Z. Bot., 17: 417-459. Symbiotic germination of orchid seeds. Knudson L., Bot. Gaz., 29: 345-379. 1929 Embryo culture to avoid cross incompatibility in Linum spp . Laibach F., J Hered., 20: 201-208. 1934 In vitro culture of cambial tissues of different trees and shrubs failed. Guatheret R. J., C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 198: 2195-2196. Successful long-term culture of tomato roots. White P. R., Plant Physiol., 9: 585-600. Identification of the first plant hormone, IAA, leading to cell enlargement. Kogl F. et al., Z. Physiol. Chem., 228: 90- 103. 1936 Embryo culture of different gymnosperms. LaRue C. R., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 63: 365-382 1939 Successful continuously growing cambial cultures of carrot and tobacco. Gautheret R. J., C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris), 208: 118-120; Nobecourt P., C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 130: 1270-1271; White P. R., Am. J. Bot., 26: 59-64. 1940 Culture of cambial tissue of Ulmus to study adventitious shoot formation. Gautheret R. J., C. R. Acad. Sci., 210: 632-634.
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1941 Coconut Milk used for growth and development of very young Datura embryos. Overbeek J. van et al., Science, 94: 350-351. 1942 Observation of secondary metabolites in plant callus cultures. Gautheret R. J. Bull. Soc. Chim. Biol. 41: 13. 1943- 1950 Tumor-inducing principle of crown gall tumors identified. Braun A. C. Phytopathol. 33: 85-100 & P. N. A. S. USA 45: 932-938. 1944 First In vitro culture of tobacco used to study adventitious shoot formation. Skoog F., Am. J. Bot., 31: 19-24. 1945 Cultivation of excised stem tips of Asparagus. Loo S. W., Am. J. Bot., 32: 13-17. 1946 First whole plants of Lupinus and Tropaeolum from shoot tips. Ball E., Am. J. Bot., 33: 301-318. 1948 Formation of adventitious shoots and roots in tobacco. Skoog F. and Tsui C., Am. J. Bot., 355: 782-787. 1949 Culture of fruits In vitro . Nitsch J. P., Science, 110: 499. 1950 Organs regenerated from callus of Sequoia . Ball E., Growth, 14: 295-325.
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