4.3 Fascism and War

4.3 Fascism and War - 04-03-08 Fascism and War Lecture...

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04-03-08 Fascism and War Lecture Summary: 1. Divisions of Armed Forces 2. Fascism I 3. War in China 4. Fascism II 5. Road to Pearl Harbor Armed forces in Politics Army vs. Navy War ministries split into the army and navy with separate funding Army is preoccupied with Russia/Soviet Union and the navy is more preoccupied with naval forces like Great Britain Army tends to be more cavalier towards their attitude of working with other powers b/c mainly dealt with only Korea and China until 1939 when they confront Russia. Navy is more educated in the West and is more knowledgeable about military mobilization Army divided into the control and imperial way factions “Control Faction” Tōjō Hideki Prime minister of Japan when surrendering to the US Cream of the crop, university graduates, higher class “Imperial Way Faction” Lower ranking officials Ex. of Imperial Way member - Araki Sadao reintroduced samurai swords, during the Meiji period would use Western swords “February 26 Incident” Another coup attempt Took control of major government offices in Tokyo, occupied the Diet building Killed Prime Minister, also killed Takahashi Korekiyo Takahashi was pro-capitalist but was for management of the economy Targeted Saionji Kinmochi who was pro-Westernization because he was a traditional enemy of military forces and supporter of political parties Not a good idea to kill the Emperor’s best friend, Emperor Hirohito angry and had radicals found and punished As long as the emperor is against getting rid of the Diet, the Diet cannot be destroyed Fascism I Fascists were unable to take control and military takes over and all policies are focused on military mobilization There was no fascist force strong enough to overcome the military like in China and Germany However, there were attempts to establish a fascist government After Feb. 26 Incident, there was a decline in Seyuikai power, particularly because Seyukai was largely pro- military Minseito gains immense power after the Feb. 26 Incident Japanese people weren’t clamoring for military dictatorship or oligarchy in the Meiji period Only 11 years since universal male suffrage Unpopularity of Fascism in Japan People’s Alliance, Far East Society Parties that promoted fascism, were unpopular
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04-03-08 Far East Society at their height had 11 seats in the House of Representatives; Minseitō had 175 representatives at that time Minseitō, Agrarianism Hirota Koki Supported civilian government against the army Made a fatal error in the re-introduction of the rule that only active admirals and generals could serve as army ministers – this will be his undoing. Military threatens government by threatening to step down, increasing military spending
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This note was uploaded on 07/02/2008 for the course HIEA 322 taught by Professor Moore during the Spring '08 term at UVA.

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4.3 Fascism and War - 04-03-08 Fascism and War Lecture...

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