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History - Third Reich and the Jews

History - Third Reich and the Jews - FINAL EXAM STUDY...

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FINAL EXAM STUDY TOPICS The questions on your final exam will be based on the following topics: Section I: 1. The main aspects of modern anti-Semitism (nineteenth and early twentieth centuries). 2. The origins and main aspects of German anti-Semitism at the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries (Wilhelmine Empire 1871-1918). -Anti-Semite rather than anti-Jew reflected the new attitude - was not the Jews' religion that was the problem - Broader, social aspects of their character and behavior caused their opposition -Jews could never assimilate or become true members of the nation in which they lived -German culture, the sense of a shared national identity, preceded the fact of a unified political nation Jews could never be part of this -In Germany, it became a matter of participation in the common identity, something that could not be acquired but had to be absorbed. Because the nation did not exist for a long time except as this shared culture, the criteria of membership focused on this tribal affiliation; citizenship in the Ger nation, according to the romantic notion of nationalism, could not be acquired after birth by people who had once been foreigners. Either one was a member or one was not. -The consequences that romantic nationalism had for the Jews was that it made their acceptance as members of the German nation more difficult -Christian belief became seen as an essential qualification for Germaneness, and one the Jews could not meet. -Jews were seen as alien because they didn't participate in Ger culture, of which Christianity was an essential element. - Jews were a highly urban group thus very visible in German society -no tradition of working the land -Jews in German speaking central Europe were an enormously successful, active, energetic and productive social group -Their very success managed to focus resentments from those who were less successful. -Jews had an obvious reason to support the ideas of Liberalism and the left - its focus on the individual, not the group or community to which they belonged, - promised them an escape from discrimination Its emphasis on freedom and toleration in a secular state was an obviously attractive alternative to conservative principles. -The distinctiveness of the Jewish population helped draw attention to them and to channel political dissatisfactions w/the liberal system linked to the cities and the commercial, financial and liberal professions against them.
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-Anti-Semitism was a problem because anti-liberalism and anti-modernity were larger issues for the Germans than they were for the British or the French, not to mention the Americans. Those groups that lost out from modernity, above all the petty bourgeoisie were the ones who hated it most. Jews were seen as emblematic of modernity and attacking them was a way of giving vent to dissatisfactions with modernity.
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History - Third Reich and the Jews - FINAL EXAM STUDY...

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