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Sexuality 493 - time For example he argued that(biologists...

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Unformatted text preview: time. For example, he argued that (biologists and psy- chologists who have accepted the doctrine that the only natural function of sex is reproduction have simply ignored the existence of sexual activity which is not reproductive1 (Kinsey et al., 1953: 448). He was critical of biologists and psychologists who assumed that hetero‘ sexual responses are part of an animal’s innate or instinc» tive equipment, and was especially critical of their treatment of non—reproductive sexual activity as perver— sions of normal instincts (ibid.). In 1947, Kinsey founded the Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University, now called the Kinsey Institute. Kinsey is famous for surveying approximately 18,000 Americans in the 1940s on their sexual practices. Through the survey he found, among other things, that there were significantly differ» ent Class patterns among men in the incidence of Inas— turbation, homosexuality, oral sex, sex with prostitutes, and premarital and extramarital sex. For women, their age and gender ideologies were significantly more important than social class in explaining variations in Sexual PfoCI'CHCCS and Practices. H6 Was also famous for his ‘HeterosexualAl-lomosexual Rating Scale’, a seven- point continuum representing a considerably more com- plex approach to understanding sexuality and sexual orientation than was typical at the time. He proposed that males do not represent two dis— crete populationsiheterosexual and homosexual—and that the living world is a continuum in all its aspects (Kinsey et al., 1948). As such, he emphasized a conti— nuity of the gradations (a scale) between exclusively het— erosexual and exclusively homosexual life histories. Note that he did not say ‘exclusively heterosexual indi- viduals’ but rather ‘histories’. This was intentional because Kinsey argued that an individual may be assigned a different position on the scale for different periods in his life. On the scale, zero refers to exclusively heterosexual with no homosexual experiences; 1 is pre— dominantly heterosexual, and only incidentally homo- sexual; 2 is predominantly heterosexual but more than incidentally homosexual; 3 is equally heterosexual and homosexual; 4 is predominantly homosexual but more than incidentally heterosexual; S is predominantly homosexual and only incidentally heterosexual; and 6 is exclusively homosexual (ibid., 638). Laboratory Approach Other noted sex researchers include \William Masters (1915—2001) and Virginia Johnson (192.5%. In 1957, William Masters hired Virginia Johnson as his research assistant in studies of human sexuality. After years of Figure 17.1 Kinsey's Heterosexual—Homosexual Rating Scale . . .Applied Heterosexual—Homosexual Rating Scale One theoretical construct designed by Alfred Kinsey is the Heterosexual—Homosexual Rating Scale’, a seven—point continuum originally published in Kinsey’s Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948). Fernando Luiz Cardoso (2002) applied this scale to his six-month field study of 41 men living in a remote fishing village in southern Brazil. Cardoso found that in this society many ‘straight’ men customarily had sex with local ‘gay’ men, called ‘paneleiros. He found at least three different categories of male sexuality: men who have sex only with men, men who have sex only with Homosexual E Z >< u: U: E E a: I Ratings women, and men who have sex with men and women. Cardoso noted that ‘they believe, a “real" man is somebody “who has never been @#$%&* but can @#l* whoever is available“ (ibid., 57). For them, masculinity is determined by sexual function and position, and not by the sex of the partner. The same was true in ancient Greece, where social class and authority determined who would penetrate and who would be penetrated. Source: Diagram from <www.kinseyinstituteorg/about/photo—tour.html>. Reprinted by permission of the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Inc. . minister-=17 Sexuality , 493 . .1. M—mnw .‘nawmmwwmwmfim ...
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