Chapter 01 - The First Civilizations - The Peoples of Western Asia and Egypt

World History

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CHAPTER 1: THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS: THE PEOPLES OF WESTERN ASIA AND EGYPT I. THE FIRST HUMANS i. No written documents exist for prehistory of humankind 1.Anthropologists (study of humans and their works) and archaeologists (study of prehistoric people through their cultural remains) use archaeological and biological information to form theories ii. 3-4 million years, hominids were the earliest humanlike creatures and lived in Africa 1. Called Australopithecines (“southern apemen”) – flourished in E and S Africa and first to make stone tools 2. Bipedal – waked upright on two legs permitted them to move long distances and use arms and legs for different purposes iii. 1959, Louis and Mary Leakey discovered Homo habilis (“handy human”) in Africa 1. Earliest tool-making hominid 2. Brain was 50% larger than Australopithecines’ a. Larger brains and bipedal ability sophisticated in search for meat, seeds, and nuts iv. 1.8 million years, Homo erectus (“upright human”) 1.Larger and more varied tools 2. First hominid to leave Africa and enter Europe and Asia b. THE EMERGENCE OF HOMO SAPIENS i. 250,000 years, 3 rd phase – Homo sapiens (“wise human”) emerged 1.100,000 B.C.E., two types formed a.Neanderthal i. Found in German Neander valley ii. Found in both Europe and Middle East dated 100,000-30,000B.C.E. iii. Relied on stone tools and were first to bury their dead belief in an afterlife? iv. Made clothes from skins of animals that they had killed for food ii. Homo sapiens sapiens (“wise, wise human”) – first anatomically modern humans and appeared in Africa 200,000-150,000 years ago 1.~100,000 years, spread outside Africa 2.30,000 B.C.E., replaced Neanderthals, who became extinct iii. 1 st humans did not move deliberately 1. Each generation, advanced beyond old hunting grounds 2-3 miles populated world in thousands of years 2.Some believe advanced human creatures may have developed in different parts of the world independently
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a. Genetic evidence supports out-of-Africa theory i. 10,000 B.C.E., Homo sapiens sapiens populated world and became the only human species left c.THE HUNTER-GATHERERS OF THE PALEOLITHIC AGE i. c. 2,500,000-10,000 B.C.E., Paleolithic Age (Gk. Paleolithic – “old stone”) 1.Humans relied on hunting and gathering for daily food 2. Close relationship with nature understood which plants and animals to avoid 3.Did not know how to grow crops or raise animals 4.Gathered wild nuts, berries, fruits, wild grains, and green plants 5.Captured and consumed buffalo, horses, bison, wild goats, reindeer, and fish ii. Hunting and gathering certain patterns of living 1.Lived in small bands of 20-30 members 2.Nomadic because they had to follow animal migrations and vegetation cycles 3.Hunting depended on observation of animal behavior patterns and required group effort for success 4.Tools became more useful and refined a.Spear, bow, and arrow made hunting easier b.Harpoons and fishhooks of bone made fishing easier
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Chapter 01 - The First Civilizations - The Peoples of Western Asia and Egypt

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