Chapter 02 - Ancient India

World History

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CHAPTER 2: ANCIENT INDIA I. THE EMERGENCE OF CIVILIZATION IN INDIA: HARAPPAN SOCIETY a. A LAND OF DIVERSITY i. Diversity is evident in Indian languages, cultures, and physical appearances 1.A cradle of religion a.Hinduism and Buddhism originated from India b. Sikhism and Islam (entered 9 th -10 th centuries C.E.) continue to flourish ii. Subcontinent in the southern ridge of Asia 1. N – Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges highest mountains in the world 2. S of Himalayas and Karakoram range is rich valley of the Ganges India’s “holy river” 3.W – Indus River valley a.Today, is an arid plateau and part of Pakistan but in the past, was more balanced in climate and was a center of Indian culture 4. S of India’s two major river valleys is the Deccan , a region of hills and upland plateau that extends from the Ganges valley to the S tip of the subcontinent a.Interior is hilly and dry but E and W coasts are lush and are the most densely populated 5.Off the SE coast is the island of Sri Lanka, which is historically linked to India iii. Diverse population 1. Dravidians – descended from the Indus civilization over 4000 years ago 2. Aryans – descended from pastoral peoples who flooded S from Central Asia in 2000 B.C.E. 3.Hill peoples – lived in the region prior to the rise of organized societies and one of the earliest inhabitants b. HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION: A FASCINATING ENIGMA 1.6000 B.C.E. in lower reaches of Indus River (modern Pakistan), discovered agricultural settlements a. Small mudbrick villages sophisticated human communities of the Harappan civilization b.3000-4000 B.C.E., the region was abundant in rainfall and may have spanned from Himalayas to the coast of the Indian Ocean c.Major cities are Harappa in Punjab and Mohenjo-Daro near the mouth of the Indus River 2.Harappans are similar to the Dravidian peoples who live in the Deccan Plateau today according to ethnographic and linguistic analysis i. POLITICAL AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES 3.Harappan civilization resembled cultures of Mesopotamia and Nile a.6500-7000 B.C.E., began in tiny farming villages scattered throughout river valley i. Grew until 3000 B.C.E. when they could now support a privileged ruling elite living in walled cities
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b.Harappa was the walled center of influence and power i. Laid in a rectangular grid with wide streets ii. Buildings were constructed of kiln-dried mudbricks and were square in shape grid pattern 4.Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro were divided into large walled neighborhoods with narrow lanes separating the houses a.Houses – square courtyard surrounded by rooms i. Bathrooms had advanced drainage systems carried sewer under streets to sewer pits beyond city walls b.Small slums for workers were found near metal furnaces and open areas for pounding grain 5.Harappan writing has not been deciphered yet a.Organization is unknown 6. Harappa was not a centralized monarchy with a theocratic base instead, it was loosely connected by ties of trade and alliance and ruled by a coalition of landlords and wealthy
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Chapter 02 - Ancient India - CHAPTER 2: ANCIENT INDIA I....

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