Chapter 04 - The Civilization of the Greeks

World History

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CHAPTER 4: THE CIVILIZATION OF THE GREEKS I. EARLY GREECE i. Geography played important role in Greece 1. Occupied a small area that is mountainous 45,000 squares miles of land 2.Small plains and river valleys surrounded by mountain ranges a. Isolated Greeks from one another follow their own different paths i. Fought each other to gain an advantage and preserve their independence ii. Size of states fostered participation in political affairs and unique cultural expression 1.Led to warfare that would devastate Greece ii. Sea influenced Greece 1.Long seacoast with bays and harbors 2.Inhabited islands to the W, S, and E of mainland a. Sailed into the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas to make contact with outside world established colonies to spread Greek civilization 3.Greek geography a. S of Gulf of Corinth was Peloponnesus an island attached by a tiny isthmus to the mainland i. Mostly hills, mountains, and small valleys location of the Sparta and Olympia (Olympic games) b. NE of Peloponnesus was Attic peninsula (Attica) Athens surrounded by mountains in N and W surrounded by sea in S and E c.NW of Attica was Boeotia in central Greece with chief city of Thebes d.N of Boeotia was Thessaly i. Large plains and great producer of grain and horses e. N of Thessaly was Macedonia 338 B.C.E., King Philip II conquered the Greeks b. MINOAN CRETE i. Earliest civilization in Aegean region was Crete , SW of mainland 1. Bronze Age civilization by 2800 B.C.E., used metals and bronze to make weapons a. Discovered by English Arthur Evans named it Minoan after Minos , king of Crete b.Were not Greek, but were influenced by the Greeks 2.Near Hercleion, discovered palace complex at Knossos a.“sea empire” – largely commercial in nature b.Accustomed to sea travel and made contact with Egypt i. Egyptian products found in Crete and Cretan products fond in Egypt
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c.Had contact with the Greeks 3.2000-1450 B.C.E., Minoan civilization reached its apex a.Palace included private living rooms and workshops for making vases, ivory figurines, and jewelry b.Bathrooms c.Rooms decorated with frescoes of nature and sporting scenes d. Storerooms held oil, wine, and grain paid as tax to the king 4.1450 B.C.E., suddenly collapsed a. Potentially a volcanic eruption on island of Thera tsunami b. Most likely an invasion and pillaging of Crete by mainland Greeks known as Mycenaeans c.THE FIRST GREEK STATE: MYCENAE i. Mycenaean comes from Mycenae, a fortified site found by German Heinrich Schliemann in 1870 1.Once the center of Mycenaean Greek civilization (1600-1100 B.C.E.) 2.Part of the Indo-European family who spread into S and W Europe, India, and Persia a. 1900 B.C.E., one group entered Greece gained control and developed a civilization ii. 1400-1200 B.C.E., reached its apex with powerful monarchies based in palace complexes built on hills surrounded by walls Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Thebes, and Orchomenos 1.Formed a loose confederacy of independent states with Mycenae the strongest
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Chapter 04 - The Civilization of the Greeks - CHAPTER 4 THE...

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