Chapter 05 - The World of the Romans

World History

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CHAPTER 5: THE WORLD OF THE ROMANS I. EARLY ROME AND THE REPUBLIC i. India is vertically 750 miles and 120 miles wide 1. Apennines divide E from W a.Fertile plains – Po River in N, plain of Latium (Rome), Campania (S of Latium) 2.E is the Adriatic Sea and W is the Tyrrhenian Sea with islands of Corsica and Sardinia a.Sicily is W of the toe boot ii. Geographic impacts 1. Apennines were not rugged did not isolate communities 2. More productive agricultural land large population 3.Rome has access to the sea (Tiber River), but still inland enough to avoid pirates a. Built on seven hills easy to defend b.Tiber River acted as a crossing point between N and S traffic c. Rome had a central location easy to expand iii. Italian peninsula juts into Mediterranean crossroad between W and E of region 1.After Romans conquered Mediterranean empire, easy to govern from Italian central point b.EARLY ROME i. Twin brothers Romulus and Remus founded Rome in 753 B.C.E. 1.Early Romans were pastoral people, spoke Latin, which belonged to Indo-European family 2. Early Rome (to 509 B.C.E.) was ruled by seven kings two of the last three were Etruscan (from Etruria, N of Rome) a.For about a hundred years, Rome was under Etruscan control and 600 B.C.E., Rome emerged as a city under Etruscan influence i. Responsible for building program 1. 575 B.C.E., first roadbed of the chief street through Rome, Sacred Way 2.Temples, markets, shops, streets, and houses 3. 509 B.C.E., monarchy was overthrown Republican government a.Fusion of Etruscan and native Roman elements i. After expanded over seven hills and the valleys in between, built Servian Wall 400 B.C.E. to surround city 4.Impacts of the Etruscans on Rome a.Etruscan dress – toga and short cloak b. Insignia of Etruscan kings Roman magistrates
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i. Fasces , an ax surrounded by a bundle of rods used as a symbol for power to execute and rule c.Latin alphabet was a medication of Etruscan one derived from Greeks c.THE ROMAN REPUBLIC 1. As Rome felt threatened by enemies military reactions allowed Rome to conquer the peninsula ii. THE ROMAN CONQUEST OF ITALY 1.Rome was surrounded by enemies during the republic including Latin communities on Latium plains a. Livy – ancient sources for history of early Roman Republic i. Continuous warfare with enemies ii. Detailed narrative of Roman efforts iii. 100 B.C.E., legendary stories taught Romans moral values and virtues that made Rome great 1.Tenacity, duty, courage, and discipline 2.340 B.C.E., conquered Latin states in Latium a. Next 50 years, waged war against Samnites , hill people from central Apennines some of whom had settled in Campania, S of Rome i. Conquered Samnites gained considerable amount of land and brought direct control with Greeks 1. 750-550 B.C.E., Greek colonization brought Greeks to Italy a.Greeks settled S Italy and traveled up peninsula i. Occupied E two-thirds of Sicily ii. Many Greeks in S Italy known as Magna Graecia
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Chapter 05 - The World of the Romans - CHAPTER 5 THE WORLD...

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