soc -- perception,_cognition,_and_attitudes

soc -- perception,_cognition,_and_attitudes - Perception,...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Perception, Cognition, Attitudes
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Perception and Social Cognition perception – the process of drawing meaning from the stimuli that reach our senses. Perception is an active process by which we gather and interpret information about our external and internal environments (Sandstrom, Martin, and Fine 2006: 52)
Background image of page 2
“Islands of Meaning” Eviatar Zerubavel Without categories reality would be undifferentiated By lumping and splitting we create islands of meaning Arbitrary decisions Categorization not performed in a vacuum Socialization – classificatory schemes or rules and language
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
“Islands of Meaning” Eviatar Zerubavel What are some examples of arbitrary distinctions that people make? What does categorization allows us to do?
Background image of page 4
Perception and Social Cognition social cognition – “structures of knowledge, the interpersonal processes of knowledge creation and dissemination (including the encoding, storage, retrieval, and activation of social information), the actual content of this knowledge, and the shaping of each of these aspects of cognition by social forces” (Howard and Renfrow 2003: 260)
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Social Thinker Models Social Thinker Models – Susan T. Fiske and Shelley Taylor (1991:10-14) Consistency Seekers- people are driven to excuse actions and beliefs that they perceive as conflicting with other beliefs Leon Festinger 1950s and 1906s
Background image of page 6
Social Thinker Models Naïve Scientist – “people resemble naïve scientists, who will gather all the relevant data and arrive at the most logical conclusion… the role of cognition in the naïve scientist model is an outcome of fairly rational analysis” (Fiske and Taylor 1991: 12) “highly rational and logical information processors” (Franzoi 2006: 137) Cold, Logical, Effortful thinking, “deliberative cognition”
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Social Thinker Models Cognitive Miser – “people are limited in their capacity to process information, so they take shortcuts whenever they can … People adopt strategies that simplify complex problems; the strategies may not be normatively correct or produce normatively correct answers, but they emphasize efficiency. The capacity limited thinker searches for rapid adequate solutions, rather than slow accurate solutions” (Fiske and Taylor 1991: 13). Effortless thinking, “automatic cognition” (DiMaggio 1997)
Background image of page 8
Social Thinker Models Motivated Tactician – “a fully engaged thinker who has multiple cognitive strategies available and chooses among them based on goals, motives, and needs. Sometimes the motivated tactician chooses wisely, in the interests of adaptability and accuracy, and sometimes the motivated tactician chooses defensively, in the interests of speed or self-esteem” (Fiske and Taylor 1991:13)
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Dual Process Model Dual-Process Models of Social Cognition – “Theories of social cognition which propose that people employ two broad cognitive strategies to understand and respond to social stimuli, one involving effortless thinking and the other involving effortful thinking” (Franzoi 2006: 137).
Background image of page 10
Image of page 11
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 54

soc -- perception,_cognition,_and_attitudes - Perception,...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 11. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online