EXAM 1 - Exam 1 Review Chapter 1 What is psychology o...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

Exam 1 Review Chapter 1 What is psychology? o Psychology is the study of the mind, brain, and behavior. Critical Thinking o Systematically questioning and evaluating information using well-supported evidence o Erroneous Errors: (come up with an example for each) Ignoring evidence Failing to judge source credibility Misunderstanding/not using statistics Seeing relationships that do not exist Using relative comparisons After the fact explanations Mental shortcuts Self – serving bias Foundations of Psychology o Schools of thought: Structuralism An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components Used introspection to study consciousness Functionalism An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and body Addressed the purpose of behavior Gestalt A theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from the sum of its parts Influenced the study of vision and human personality Behaviorism A psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing observable behavior Cognitive Psychology The study of mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making Social Psychology The study of how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions Controversy in Psychology o Mind/body problem (dualism) – are the mind and body separate and distinct?
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

A fundamental psychological issue asking whether mind and body are separate and distinct or the mind is simply the physical brain’s subjective experience The brain influences the mind o Nature/nurture debate – are we born with a blank slate or are we preprogrammed? The arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture The view today: Nature and nurture influence each other and are interdependent on each other Important People in Psychology o William Wundt Established the first psychology laboratory o William James Physiologist, philosopher o Mary Whiton Calkins First woman to set up a psychological laboratory and first woman president of the American Psychological Association o Francis Sumner The first African-American to earn a doctorate degree in psychology in the US. Also, established the first psychological laboratory at a black university (Howard) o Kenneth Clark First black president of APA o B.F. Skinner Went to extreme with behaviorism Research emphasized how behavior is shaped by the consequences that follow it Skinner argued that mental processes were of no scientific value in explaining behavior o John B. Watson Challenged psychology’s focus on conscious and unconscious mental processes Developed behaviorism, a psychological approach that emphasizes the
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern