EXAM 1 - Exam 1 Review Chapter 1 What is psychology o Psychology is the study of the mind brain and behavior Critical Thinking o Systematically

EXAM 1 - Exam 1 Review Chapter 1 What is psychology o...

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Exam 1 Review Chapter 1 What is psychology? oPsychology is the study of the mind, brain, and behavior. Critical Thinking oSystematically questioning and evaluating information using well-supported evidence oErroneous Errors: (come up with an example for each) Ignoring evidence Failing to judge source credibility Misunderstanding/not using statistics Seeing relationships that do not exist Using relative comparisons After the fact explanations Mental shortcuts Self – serving bias Foundations of Psychology oSchools of thought: Structuralism An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying componentsUsed introspection to study consciousness Functionalism An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and body Addressed the purpose of behavior Gestalt A theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from the sum of its parts Influenced the study of vision and human personality Behaviorism A psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing observable behavior Cognitive Psychology The study of mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making Social Psychology The study of how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions Controversy in Psychology oMind/body problem (dualism) – are the mind and body separate and distinct?
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A fundamental psychological issue asking whether mind and body are separate and distinct or the mind is simply the physical brain’s subjective experience The brain influences the mind oNature/nurture debate – are we born with a blank slate or are we preprogrammed? The arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture The view today: Nature and nurture influence each other and are interdependent on each other Important People in Psychology oWilliam Wundt Established the first psychology laboratory oWilliam James Physiologist, philosopher oMary Whiton Calkins First woman to set up a psychological laboratory and first woman president of the American Psychological Association oFrancis Sumner The first African-American to earn a doctorate degree in psychology inthe US. Also, established the first psychological laboratory at a black university (Howard) oKenneth Clark First black president of APA oB.F. Skinner Went to extreme with behaviorism Research emphasized how behavior is shaped by the consequences that follow it Skinner argued that mental processes were of no scientific value in explaining behavior oJohn B. Watson Challenged psychology’s focus on conscious and unconscious mental processes Developed behaviorism, a psychological approach that emphasizes the
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