ie_sp07_lecture21_digital0 - Lecture 19 Digital Electronics...

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1 Lecture 19 Digital Electronics
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2 Goals Introduce binary digital logic concepts Explore the voltage transfer characteristics of ideal and nonideal inverters Define logic levels and logic states of logic gates Introduce the concept of noise margin Dynamic properties if logic gates Investigate simple transistor, and diode-transistor implementations of the inverter and other logic circuits Explore basic design techniques of logic circuits
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3 Brief History of Digital Electronics Digital electronics can be found in many applications in the form of microprocessors, microcontrollers, PCs, DSPs, and an uncountable number of other systems. The design of digital circuits has progressed from resistor- transistor logic (RTL) and diode-transistor logic (DTL) to transistor-transistor logic (TTL) and emitter-coupled logic (ECL) to complementary MOS (CMOS) The density and number of transistors in microprocessors has increased from 2300 in the 1971 4-bit 4004 microprocessor to 25 million in the more recent IA-64 chip and it is projected to reach over one billion transistors by 2010
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4 Ideal Logic Gates Binary logic gates are the most common style of digital logic The output will consist of either a 0 (low) or a 1 (high) The most basic digital building block is the inverter
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5 The Ideal Inverter The ideal inverter has the following voltage transfer characteristic (VTC) and is described by the following symbol V + and V - are the supply rails, and V H and V L describe the high and low logic levels at the output
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6 Logic Level Definitions An inverter operating with power supplies at V + and 0 V can be implemented using a switch with a resistive load
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7 Logic Voltage Level Definitions Note that for the VTC of the nonideal inverter, there is now an undefined logic state
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8 Logic Voltage Level Definitions (cont.) V L – The nominal voltage corresponding to a low-logic state at the input of a logic gate for v i = V H V H
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