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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Goals: 1. appreciate central role chem. plays among sciences 2. understand how scientists approach study of nature and construct mental pix of microscopic world to explain results of experimental observations 3. discuss how chem. views the world and how chemists organize info they acquire Chemistry- science tht studies composition and properties of matter Matter- anything tht takes up space and has mass From knowledge of chemical reactions weve gained the ability to create materials never before found on earth tht fulfill needs of society Major advances in these areas made at the atomic and molecular level All things are composed of chemicals Chemistry is a dynamic subject Experimental Science- hypotheses or ideas can be tested by experiment Quantitative Science- exacting measurements can be performed (mass, temperature, volume, time etc.) contrast w/ qualitative observations and experiments prior to this time (ex. cold) Era of Modern Chemistry- dates back to the 1700s, measurements were 1 st performed, became a quantitative science Lavoisier (1743-1794) - father of modern chemistry, quantitative experiments by performing measurements in combustion experiments, was beheaded during French revolution Scientific Method- commonsense approach to developing an understanding of natural phenomena 1. experiments/ data 2. results observations/empirical facts/data law 3. hypothesis (educated guess) 4. further experiments (devised based on hypothesis) 5. negative results lead to modification or rejection of hypotheses and formulation of new hypothesis/ positive results support hypothesis 6. a theory follows after results consistently support a hypothesis 7. conclusion 8. peer review 9. further experiments Scientific study normally begins w/ some ques abt the behavior of nature Observation- statement tht accurately describes sumthin we see, hear, taste, feel, or smell Observations vs. conclusions For an observation to be useful it must be the same no mater who the observer is Experiments are performed under controlled conditions according to certain procedures so they are reproducible Observations gathered during an experiment often lead us to conclusions Conclusions- statement that is based on what we think about a series of observations Matter- anything that occupies space and has mass Mass- amount of matter in a given object Weight- force on an object by gravity *Mass is constant from place to place; weight is not...
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- Fall '08