History 1011 - Lecture #10 - Notes - History 1011...

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History 1011 - Lecture #10 - Notes Lecture 10: New Political Orders in the 16 th and 17 th Centuries – Asia, Americas, Africa The Ottoman Empire The Ottomans were heirs to three traditions: the steppe, Islam, and the Roman Empire o As Mediterranean power, affected by shifting economic center of gravity of Europe to the north and the high seas o Yet still located astride Europe and Asia, since 1453 taking of Constantinople The Sultan’s main residence, Topkapi Palace reflected some of this heritage o Layout resembled a nomad’s encampment –memories of steppe tradition Sprawling complex, embodying in the stone of empire the nomadic tent encampments o Complex contained 10 mosques, emphasizing Sultan’s rule as Caliphate (since early 16 th century) and role of Islam o Lack of clear succession, role of harem Ottoman Administration o Religious Tolerance Expansion into Balkans brought in many Christians, higher taxes for non- Muslims Devsirme (blood tax) and the Janissaries Chiefly the practice whereby the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in order that they be raised to serve the state. This tax of sons was imposed only on the Christian subjects of the empire, in the villages of the Balkans and Anatolia. o Roman legal and administrative examples Sultan the ultimate authority (role of religion) Bureaucracy, central authority, and peripheries Playing of powerful military and civilian leaders against each other Ottoman law book written in in Arabic in Istanbul in 1517 (remained for 300 years) o End of Ottoman expansion Siege of Vienna in 1683 turned back Population stagnated, trend worsened in 18 th century The Mughal Empire in India Mughal’s idea of sovereignty derived from claim to heritage of Timur the Lame and Genghis Khan o Ultimately, theirs was right to rule by conquest Defeated rebels submit to Emperor Akbar, 1573 o Treated their empire as storehouse of loot Economic demands of state and court stimulated economy o Peasants forced to be inventive, produce for the market
History 1011 - Lecture #10 - Notes o Spending on palaces, warfare, and luxury items stimulated economy and recycled wealth Mughal Administration o Outside the tight core areas, Mughals relied on sharing tribute with allies, clients, relatives Rivalries among different groups: clan of Timur, Afghan and Persian fighters, Indian chieftains Lack of clear succession rules led to conflicts when ruler died o Aurangzeb (1658-1707) Mogul emperor of Hindustan (1658-1707), who increased the empire to its greatest extent

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