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History 1011 - Lecture #10 - NotesLecture 10: New Political Orders in the 16thand 17thCenturies – Asia, Americas, Africa The Ottoman EmpireThe Ottomans were heirs to three traditions: the steppe, Islam, and the Roman EmpireoAs Mediterranean power, affected by shifting economic center of gravity of Europe to the north and the high seas oYet still located astride Europe and Asia, since 1453 taking of Constantinople The Sultan’s main residence, Topkapi Palace reflected some of this heritage oLayout resembled a nomad’s encampment –memories of steppe tradition Sprawling complex, embodying in the stone of empire the nomadic tent encampments oComplex contained 10 mosques, emphasizing Sultan’s rule as Caliphate (since early 16thcentury) and role of Islam oLack of clear succession, role of haremOttoman Administration oReligious ToleranceExpansion into Balkans brought in many Christians, higher taxes for non-Muslims Devsirme (blood tax) and the Janissaries Chiefly the practice whereby the Ottoman Empire sent military officers to take boys, ages 8 to 18, from their families in order that they be raised to serve the state. This tax of sons was imposed only on the Christian subjects of the empire, in the villages of the Balkans and Anatolia.oRoman legal and administrative examplesSultan the ultimate authority (role of religion)Bureaucracy, central authority, and peripheriesPlaying of powerful military and civilian leaders against each otherOttoman law book written in in Arabic in Istanbul in 1517 (remained for 300 years)oEnd of Ottoman expansion Siege of Vienna in 1683 turned backPopulation stagnated, trend worsened in 18thcentury The Mughal Empire in IndiaMughal’s idea of sovereignty derived from claim to heritage of Timur the Lame and Genghis KhanoUltimately, theirs was right to rule by conquestDefeated rebels submit to Emperor Akbar, 1573oTreated their empire as storehouse of lootEconomic demands of state and court stimulated economyoPeasants forced to be inventive, produce for the market
History 1011 - Lecture #10 - NotesoSpending on palaces, warfare, and luxury items stimulated economy and recycledwealth Mughal AdministrationoOutside the tight core areas, Mughals relied on sharing tribute with allies, clients,relativesRivalries among different groups: clan of Timur, Afghan and Persian fighters, Indian chieftainsLack of clear succession rules led to conflicts when ruler died oAurangzeb (1658-1707) Mogul emperor of Hindustan (1658-1707), who increased the empire to its greatest extent