Ch.9 Notes - Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I. Ionic Bonding a....

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Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I. Ionic Bonding a. Brief (key: lattice energy) II. Covalent Bonding a. Lewis structures III. OMIT 9.4, 9.6 (Subplot: electro negativity) In 3+ achieves a noble gas configuration o [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 1 Electron Configurations of Ions Cations of Groups I – IIA have noble gas configurations (ion charge = group number) Anions of Groups VA – VIIA have noble gas configurations (ion charge = group number – 8) Transition metals always lose their n s electrons before their (n-1) d electrons o Fe [Ar]4s 2 3d 6 o Fe 2+ [Ar]3d 6 Some heavier members of Groups IIIA – VA give cations with n s2 configurations Isoelectronic series: atoms or ions having the same number of electrons o Ex. O 2- , F - , Ne, Na + , Mg 2+ (all have 10 electrons) o Z= 8 9 10 11 12(smallest) Ionic Radii Def: o Measure of the size of the electron cloud in the ion Determined by measuring distances in a variety of ionic compounds Radii of cations smaller than corresponding neutral atoms o Ex. r(Li + ) < r(Li) r(Al 3+ ) < r(Al) 90pm 152pm 50pm 143pm Lewis Symbols Symbol in valence electrons are shown as dots about the letter symbol of the element Remember: o Valance electrons are those involved in bonding o Important in both covalent and ionic bonding o o Note: both atoms achieve a noble gas core of electrons (eight valence electrons) through an electron transfer reaction Octet Rule
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o Atoms tend to surround themselves with eight valence electrons
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This note was uploaded on 07/05/2008 for the course CHEM 1311 taught by Professor Sibert during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.

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Ch.9 Notes - Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding I. Ionic Bonding a....

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