CHAPTER 12 OUTLINE

CHAPTER 12 OUTLINE - CHAPTER 12 OUTLINE PERCEIVING AND...

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CHAPTER 12 OUTLINE PERCEIVING AND UNDERSTANDING OTHERS ATTRIBUTION Social cognition: how we perceive and think about each other Casual attribution: process by which individuals answer the questions they  impose Observe a behavior then draw conclusions and the actions we take depend on what we believe caused the behavior. ATTRIBUTION AS LAY SCIENCE Kelley Need to know whether the cause and effect covary or correlate. Situational attribution: factors external to the individual Dispositional: focus on factors that are internal to the person such as characteristics CULTURE AND ATTRIBUTION People have strong bias in the way they interpret the behavior of others Individualistic: rights, needs, & preferences of the individual View themselves as independent US, Canada, Europe, Australia Generally believe people to be moved by internal factors dispositional Collectivistic: importance of maintaining norms, standards, and traditions of families and other social groups. View themselves as interdependent Most cultures are this: Latin America, Asia, Africa
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Generally believe people behave according to demands of the situation situational THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR Viewing something as a dispositional when in fact it is situational and vise versa Quizmaster example COGNITION, PERCEPTION, AND ATTRIBUTION Actor-observer difference: when we are the observer we see it as dispositional whereas when we are the actor we see it as situational PERSON PERCEPTION AND COGNITIVE SCHEMAS Make general assumptions and assessments about people that takes us far  beyond the info we actually have available. Social cognition can influence our memory and perception Use our schema to fill in the blanks about how a person is. Implicit Theories of Personality: influence how we remember other people, how  we perceive them, and how we interpret their actions Bring together a cluster of beliefs and link traits together and link traits to behaviors Entity: belief that personality is fixed (individualistic) More likely to go beyond info and make global judgments Incremental: belief that personality is malleable STEREOTYPES: schemas about the characteristics of whole groups ABC’s of prejudice: Affective (emotional) component – view groups as bad Behavioral component – tendency to discriminate Cognitive component – the stereotype itself
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WHERE STEREOTYPES COME FROM We are less exposed to groups with which we have no association and thus have less opportunity for learning and likely to perceive them as merely a mass of more or less similar people out group homogeneity effect Stereotypes are sustained by our tendency for confirmation bias Using the confirmation bias we may create a correlation that does not exist or we overestimate one this is known as illusory correlation THE EFFECTS OF STEREOTYPES
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This note was uploaded on 07/06/2008 for the course PSYC 9C taught by Professor Dontremember during the Spring '08 term at UC Irvine.

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CHAPTER 12 OUTLINE - CHAPTER 12 OUTLINE PERCEIVING AND...

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