Exam 4 - Struggle for equal rights o Did not start with...

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Struggle for equal rights o Did not start with Martin Luther King, Jr o Brown vs. Board of Education o Long tradition of challenging for rights o Black churches o NAACP o Labor organization o Struggle by Booker T Washington Prove your worth by educating in trade but not retaliating o W.E.B DuBois and the NAACP Niagara Movement, 1905-1911 NAACP, 1911-present o Marcus Garvey Support of black business, black ownership Support/return to Africa Black Star Lines Universal Negro Improvement Association o A. Philip Randolph and labor Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters Randolph and connection with the power of labor o Most significant gains begin in 1940s Work by NAACP and Walter White Support from Eleanor Roosevelt Labor demands by A. Philip Randolph 1941 Randolph proposed a March on Washington Pressure FDR for fair labor practices March did not occur, FDR gave in o Executive Order 8802 Fair Employment Act Applied only to defense industries Committee on Fair Employment Practices Investigate violations Truman met with activists in fall 1946 Commmittee on Civil Rights o Investigate violence against African Americans o Committee said: Permanent civil rights commission Anti-lynching measures End to poll taxes in South Truman banned racial discrimination in federal hiring, 1948 Truman issued Executive Order 9981 to desegregate the armed forces o Measures were slow o Military gradually integrated o Korean War sped up the integration of services o Government still slow to open more jobs to blacks
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o Brown Case Began in 1950 Lawsuit to end school segregation Kansas courts reject suit Thurgood Marshall, NAACP lawyer Went before Supreme Court Argues that “separate but equal” is not equal Chief Justice Earl Warren: “Separate but equal is inherently unequal.” Ordered desegregation of schools with “all deliberate speed” White Southerners protest decision “Massive Resistance” KKK and White Citizens Councils Southern Congressmen pledge to oppose the ruling By 1965 only 2% of Southern schools were integrated o Baton Rouge Bus Boycott, 1953 Reverend T.J. Jemison o Emmett Till, 1955 14 y/o boy from Chicago Spoke to a white lady while visiting relatives in Mississippi He was taken from his home that night Tortured, murdered, dumped in a river Two white men arrested, tried, not convicted Many claim the Till murder as the spark of the modern civil rights movement o December 1955, Montgomery, Alabama Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white person
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Exam 4 - Struggle for equal rights o Did not start with...

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