Exam1 Review

Exam1 Review - Exam 1 Review People to Know. Aristotle...

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Exam 1 Review
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People to Know…  (***one will be on test) Imhotep: first to use a word for “brain” Hippocrates  (Father of Medicine): attributed epilepsy to the brain Plato: attributed mental processes to the brain Aristotle thought it was the heart Herophilus  (Father of Anatomy): attributed mental processes to  ventricles Galen : noted effect of head injuries on gladiators Albertus Magnus: Christian who dared to believe in the brain Da Vinci: drew nice pictures of the four ventricles Descartes: made an early account of reflexes Sir Thomas Willis: (Father of Neurology): named cranial nerves and  Circle of Willis Franz Joseph Gall : phrenology guru : recorded action potentials in giant squid axons to  describe ionic mechanisms underlying it
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Creatures to Know… Torpedo Ray Uses Ach  (receptor and neurotransmitter –  affects motor systems)  channels to produce a  shock that paralyzes prey King Cobra Venom is an ACh channel blocker  (causes  paralysis in body)
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Disorders to Know… *** Epilepsy: highly synchronized activity of  cortical neurons *** Multiple Sclerosis: destroys myelin and  disrupts AP propagation Myasthenia Gravis: immune attack on  muscular ACh receptors results in muscle  weakness Korsakoff’s Syndrome: severe antero- and  retrograde amnesia with confabulation Usually caused by alcoholism-induced thiamine  deficiency
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Chapter 1 Common Types of Behavioral Psychology  Studies Somatic Intervention Manipulate the body to see how it changes  behavior Behavioral Intervention Manipulate behavior/environment to see how it  changes the body Correlation Compare physiological measurements to  behavioral “scores”
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Chapter 2 Section Types Coronal Sagittal Horizontal Transverse (cut perpendicular to the long axis of the spinal cord/ brain) In spinal cord it’s the same as horizontal Becomes coronal as it moves past the brainstem Anatomical Directions Rostral: toward the head  (through the nostril) Caudal: toward the tail Anterior: toward the front Posterior: toward the rear Dorsal: toward the back “back” as in the location of the spine, not “back” as in rear Ventral: toward the belly
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Divisions of the Nervous  System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord Covered in Meninges Dura Mater  (strongest) Arachnoid Mater Pia Mater  (covers the brain) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Somatic Division (sensory and motor) Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic Division: “Fight-or-Flight” Parasympathetic Division: “Rest-and-Digest”
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Exam1 Review - Exam 1 Review People to Know. Aristotle...

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