Personal Notes: Chapter 2

Personal Notes: Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 2/6 1 Basic Chemistry...

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Chapter 2 2/6 Basic Chemistry 1. Atoms a. Sub atomic particles i. Electron (-) ii. Proton (+) iii. Neutron b. Electronically Neutral: p + = e - c. Stable (non-reactive) i. 1 st shell: 2 electrons to be stable ii. 2 nd + shells: 8 electrons to be stable 2. a. Covalent Bonding : two atoms share a pair of electrons i. Most biological molecules ii. Polar Covalent Bonding: electrons are not shared equally between atoms; electrons spend more time at one end (partial negative charge: δ - ) iii. Non-polar Covalent Bonding: 2 atoms share electrons evenly (no charged ends) b. Ionic Bonding : one atom transfers an electron to another atom i. Na + Cl - : 1. Na: positive ion (loses an electron) 2. Cl: negative ion (gains an electron) c. Hydrogen Bonding : a weak attraction between charged molecules or parts of large molecules (DNA); bonds between MOLECULES, NOT atoms 3. Molecule : a group of atoms covalently bonded. There is a definite number of atoms in the group; atoms are in a definite special arrangement a. Example: O 2 , H 2 O 2/8 Properties of Water (pg. 25) 1. “Universal Solvent” (Figure 2.5): most molecules dissolve in water (if charged) a. Hydrophilic : dissolves in water (either an ionic compound or polar covalent molecule—sugar) b. Hydrophobic : doesn’t dissolve in water (not charged); non polar—oil 2. Ice floats: ice is less dense then liquid water; plants and animals can hibernate below ice 3. pH (Figure 2.6): water molecules break apart and form ions
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2008 for the course BIOL 115 taught by Professor Behrens during the Spring '07 term at Towson.

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Personal Notes: Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 2/6 1 Basic Chemistry...

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