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1.The statement assumes that there exists one universal set of values in the discussion of sexuality when in reality values are subjective and created by one’s society, culture, socioeconomic status, education, and a great many other aspects of life. As the overview explains, each person’s values are constructed by the individual through their own knowledge, and beliefs. This makes it possible for two people in the same family to have different values because they have had different experiences to shape their beliefs, and by effect what they consider to be high values. The role of religion and culture in creating values further proves that a universal set of values is impossible to create. What one person from society considers to be an indicator of high values, another from a different society would perceive as an indicator of possessing no values at all. For example, from the textbook, a traditional Roman Catholic would likely have a very different set of values from an American Catholic even though they belong to the same faith. Their individual experiences in their religious beliefs shaped their unique value set, and those values may differ based on those experiences. 2.Considerably the most liberal representation of fluidity in sexual identity, the Berdache spirit embodies the Native American, non-judgmental, acceptance and even reverence of non-binary gender identities. Native Americans not only view the identification of a person’sgender differing from his or her anatomy as normal but viewed this “third gender” as a high spiritual status in the community. This acceptance is limited, however, within the native communities in comparison to the pressures of Western societies in the United States for individuals to solely represent traditionally masculine or feminine characteristics. These pressures lead individuals who identify as ‘transsexual’ to undergo sexual reassignment surgeries in order to assimilate into western society. In contrast, the Berdaches are able to keep their gender identity whilst remaining physically the same because their position and opportunities for work in Native societies are unaffected by their third gender characteristics. Early Chinese societies, influenced heavily by Taoist philosophy, encouraged sexual activity and exploration as a way to bring more harmony into the universe and as partof the process of becoming one with the Tao. The female sexual experience was given great importance because it brought about the yin-yang balance. Therefore, the act of sexual relations was motivated by providing both parties with fulfillment in order to reach balance and harmony under Taoist ideology. This period ended under Confucianism in China, and later on communist victory in the late 1900’s, that rejected uninhibited sexual identity as a western decadence and inherently immoral. There was heavy sexual repression in Chinese society, and even after marriage sexual intercourse was limited because of it’s perceived uselessness. In recent years, thanks to China’s economic liberalization, the trend has shifted
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Human Sexuality, partner, Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, marriage sexual intercourse