civil_war - Page 1 of 6 American Expansion • Manifest...

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Page 1 of 6 American Expansion Manifest Destiny ( John O’Sullivan ): God is calling Americans to expand as far west as possible; Racism; right or duty to extend democracy and get rid of aristocracy; separation of church and state; most Americans believed M.D. was able to be achieved peacefully Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821 1833: Mexican Congress stripped Catholic Church of its huge tracts of land in California; lands turned over to Mexican ranchers (rancheros) in massive grants of 50,000 acres or more 1829: Mexico abolishes slavery American emigration to Texas Spain bans Mexican trading with America 1834: General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna dissolves Mexican Congress and proclaimed himself dictator The Alamo : old Texas mission where 187 Texan troops were stationed as a garrison; Santa Anna takes the Alamo and kills all 187 troops o Sam Houston : commander of Texas forces; former governor of Tennessee o Encounter Santa Anna and Mexican troops along the San Jacinto River and conquer them in 15 minutes o Threaten Santa Anna with execution; instead a treaty is signed acknowledging the Republic of Texas (1836) with the Rio Grande as the southern most border o Constitution of Texas prohibits the congress to interfere with issues of slavery o Sam Houston wants to get Texas into the U.S. o 1845: Texas admitted to U.S. as slave state Mexican War (1846) o U.S. border dispute with Mexico: Nueces River (130 miles north of Rio Grande) o Polk orders Zachary Taylor and troops to go to the Rio Grande River which begins the Mexican War o California declared an independent republic o Brings slavery as a major issue because of increasing land acquisition o “conquest of Mexico will poison America” –Ralph Waldo Emerson 1846: Wilmot Proviso : aimed to confine slavery to those states where it already exists; no land acquired from Mexico to be instated as a slave state 1848: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo : gives U.S. New Mexico and Upper California for $18mil Compromise of 1850 o California—Free o other land acquired by America to be divided into two territories (Utah and New Mexico) where popular sovereignty will determine slave issue o slave trade abolished in Washington, DC
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Page 2 of 6 o Fugitive Slave Law : denies runaway slaves a trial by jury, requires American citizens to help return runaway slaves Civil War Causes John C. Calhoun South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828): 1828 and 1832 tariffs null and void in South Carolina 1822: Denmark Vesey (freed slave) revolts and attempts to takes over Charleston (capital of SC); high ranking member of Vesey’s group tips off the whites and Vesey is executed; causes SC to push harder for constitutional support of slavery Force Bill : reaffirms president’s power (Andrew Jackson); Union is perpetual and no state has the right to secede Senator Stephen Douglas (Dem.—Illinois) a.k.a. “The Little Giant” tries to put anti-slavery legislation for organization of lands in the west
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This note was uploaded on 07/07/2008 for the course GHIST 225 taught by Professor H.gelfand during the Summer '08 term at James Madison University.

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civil_war - Page 1 of 6 American Expansion • Manifest...

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